The Communist Party of Istalia (Istalian: Partito Comunista d'Istalia) was an Istalian political party founded in 4334 by Antonio Masci, the party's first secretary. First dissolved in 4401 due an internal crysis, the Party was re-founded in 4444 by Gioia Garofano with a democratic socialist turn. The history of the party ends three years after, when Garofalo called an extraordinary party assembly to decide about the dissolution of the PCI and the creation of a new political subject called Party of Istalian Socialism. The rights to the "PCI" name and his history were granted by Garofalo to the "Istalian Communist Museum" sited in Piracusa.

Born as a metzist-leonidist party aimed to conquer power through an armed revolution, after the Masci's secretariat, the PCI reformed itself until becoming a democratic socialist party with a revolutionary presence of minorance; after the Garofani re-foundation the Party outlawed every revolutionary or violent presence, enforcing the democratic values for all its members.

During the Masci's secretary the PCI governed between 4338 and 4342 with the Cabinet Bellinguer, and between 4369 and 4373 under the secretariat Revara in the omonimous cabinet. Revara led again the country between 4380 and 4387.

Secretaries and ideology Edit

The first Communist phase (4334-4401) Edit

Masci secretariat (4334-48) Edit

Antonio Masci founded and led the party for fourteen years until 4348. Born with revolutionary and totalitarian ambitions, Masci rapidly met a large consent from the population, which led the party to gain the 19% share of votes during the first elections it parteciped; this great result forced the PCI to a collaboration with other leftist parties, bringing to the born of the Cabinet Bellinguer (4338-42) which reformed many parameters of the istalian society, most of all in social and monetary issues, for example with the reduction of the retirement age from 69 to 63.
Antonio Masci

Antonio Masci (4273-4355), founder and first secretary of the PCI

Bellinguer secretariat (4348-67) Edit

The Communist Party's envolvement in a coalition government led Masci to reconcile with democratic values: in 4348, when he felt too old to continue the guide of the party, he officially indicated Endrigo Bellinguer as his natural follower, who was elected by the Central committee with acclamation. In facts, during the Bellinguer's secretariat the Party's Statuto was changed erasing every appeal to the Proletarian dictatorship or to any form of violent revolution. Since these years, the PCI applied for several times to be accepted from larger slices of the Istalian population as a democratic force wich, beside this, still continues to fight for the rights of the last.
Endrigo Bellinguer-0

Endrigo Bellinguer (4292-4376), the Masci's successor and first communist to lead an istalian cabinet

During this period, Istalia grew under a long center-right season of governments, denying to the PCI the opportunity to lead again the country under the Bellinguer's name, which, anyway, managed to conquer a large consent among trasversal zones of population, affirming the new democratic values in the party without offend the Masci's memory.

After the official passage from the metzist-leonidist beliefs to the leonidist ones, the opposition inside the party (totalitarians and trozzisks) united under an unique organization led by metzist-leonidist Marco Pizzo.

Revara secretariat (4367-84) Edit

Ernesto Revara defined himself as a "democratic leonidist" and an "istalian communist", following the line traced by Bellinguer; many the critics done by Revara against any form of dictatorship all over Terra. Anyway, Revara never denied the classist ideological spread which could led to a majority of communists during elections, which would bring to a socialist society without any form violence.

Revara's cabinet I (4368-73) Edit

Facing his old age, Bellinguer passed his will to Ernesto Revara (4320-4391) who was elected in 4367 as new party secretary, the younger ever elected until that day and the first to be at the same time head of government and communist leader. In facts, just one year after his appointment, the PCI won the 4368 elections giving to the country the first communist head of state: Fidelio Casto (4302-4374), a moderate figure in the socialist and syndacalist movement who incited Revara to complete the democratization of the party began by Bellinguer. The Revara cabinet acted in a completely democratic respect of the institutions, even including a centrist party in the coalition (Partito Repubblicano), with major conquers in the re-institution of a progressive income tax and a substantial growing of the state spending on welfare and infrastructural matters.

At the opposition (4373-75) Edit

Ernesto Revara-0

Ernesto Revara (4320-4391), the first communist secretary to become at the same time head of government. Through the years he remained the most popular figure inside its party, even due to his violent death after a terrorist kidnapping.

After the lost of the elections following the Revara government, the internal opposition led by Marco PIzzo grew constricting the party to indice his first Primary elections in 4373; after this consultation within the communist electorate, the Party's Central Committee registered an unexpected grow on the revolutionary forces which strive to a new affirmation of the metzist-leonidist and mascist ideals inside the party.

In 4374, while the right wing government was facing a crysis, the Revara secretery proposed four law proposals which were accepted by the parliament. This was seen as a great victory for the communists, who succeeded to centralize vital matters as instruction and environment protections; the istalian government was forced to finance high school, universites and pre-school institutions all over the country, along with new expenses to maintain nationally forests and public parks. [1]

Support at the Samara cabinet (4375-76) Edit

After the collapse of the centre-right government due to the retirement of Partito dell'Unità Popolare, President el-saladin asked the Communist Party to join a centre-left coalition of government. Revara accepted the offer of five ministries while the leadership of the executive went to Rania Samara of the PuP. The most relevant operation in this year of government was the giant discovery that the ministry of justice, in the person of the communist Luigi Lungo, made about lobbist groups related to the neo-fascist organization Istalia Bianca and to a pedophilia ring which funded the majority of the Alternativa Istaliana (a major nationalist party) political campaign back in 4368. [2] The scandal led to the dissolution of AI, pushing some of his reformist parlamentaries in the wing of the PCI.

Revara's cabinet II (4380-84) Edit

After the XXIth Communist Congress happened in 4378, the Revara leonidist line gained a more consistent support inside the party, leaving in minorance the maximalist positions of Marco Pizzo. The following year, every leftist force of the country gave the support for the election of President Sandro Pettini (4307-) at Head of State. After the large victory of Pettini[3], the Liberal Democracts attacked the communists defining them as "authoritarian" or, even more, "totalitarian"; this harsh political conflict led the President to ask the formation of a Gran coalition cabinet with the external support of Republican Party. Revara welcomed the Pettini's proposals, remembering the great collaboration with PRI during his past government. [4]Anyway, after weeks of discussion, the republicans refused the Pettini's offer - instead of the Internal ministry the republicans claimed to lead the country - so the President put to vote a Majority government formed by every leftist force in Istalia: PCI, Istalia for Everyone, Democratic Front and Radical Alliance. Revara was chose again to lead the executive.

The communist secretary had in mind a following of the plans began during his former government: the previous enhancement of the income tax gave huge funds to the country, meeting the approvement of the istalian population which benefited from the enhanced welfare measures; registered this support, Revara proposed even higher rates for the richer slices of population, in a way to further enlarge the public sector. Indeed, Revara immediately proposed a plan to institute a large public healthcare sector, with free pharmaceutical drugs for people of low income, and an instruction reform which gave more funds to public schooling and full subsidies to poorer students. During the first months of government, Angona in Mezzodiurno was hit by an harsh earthquake of 6,8 magnitude, which led Revara to create an exceptional plan of public housing to assist the thousand of people who lost any shelter. The left coalition strongly supported the actions of the Prime minister, who imposed his measures to adress the earthquake with several votes of confidence in the parliament.[5]

The crysis (4383-84) Edit

Marco Pizzo

Marco Pizzo (4331-4400), the Revara's successor, faithful to the metzist-leonidist ideals

After their government, the communists waited for a new affirmation through the elections. Instead, the istalian population gave to the PCI their two worst results ever: during the 4383 and the 4384 general elections only five italians on a hundred chose the communists as their representative party. This political earthquake led to the Revara's dimissions as general secretary, bringing to the primaries which elected the metzist-leonidist Marco Pizzo as leader of the Communist Party. The democratic reforms of Revara met here their end.

Pizzo secretariat (4384-91) Edit

After his election, Marco Pizzo stopped every pursude of the Communist Party towards democracy. Insipired by the metzist-leonidist teachings of Antonio Masci, he denied every future change of the party in a reformist way. The new PCI defined again itself has revolutionary and bagan an harsh opposition to the Thallers who emerged as leading force in the country.

Electoral surprise and XIVth Congress (4388-90) Edit

After years of radicalization inside the party, the communists started to gain new consenses majorly inside the working class area, meeting some disapproval from the intellectual class inside the country, which strongly supported the PCI since its founding. At the 4388 anticiped elections, by the way, the communists gained a huge consent between the istalians: near the 30% of them chose the communists to lead again the country, a result never registered before in the contemporary era. Pizzo, faithful to his anti-parlamentarist line, started an harsh discussion with former secretary Revara and the democratic-socialist area, leading the party to work toward a communist government with small concessions to the smaller parties in the coalition. In the same year happened the XIVth Communist Congress, which should've have led to the re-affirmation of the metzist-leonidist and revolutionary values inside the Statuto and dirigence. Instead, it registered just the change of the Pizzo current from "Revolutionaries" to "Metzist-leonidist", because of the strong election results and the will of the militancy to lead a new government. Seen this critical moment for his secretariat, Pizzo candidated Roberto Hoxha as new Head of government, a figure of compromission between the two main souls inside the party.

The Revara kidnapping and Romula attempt (4390-91) Edit

On the 7th of November of 4390 ex secretary Ernesto Revara was kidnapped by the Red Brigate, a terrorist organization linked to the extreme wings of the "red thallerists". With a flyer, the communist kidnappers motivated their act to attack the moderate positions of the PCI, with Revara placing an important role in its democratization. Pizzo, who was harshly attacked by the brigatists for its compromises with the democratic faction inside his party, was largely seen as responsible of the radicalization inside the country. With the communist militancy claiming for a strong reaction of the party against the terrorists and with the following of the investigations, on the 20th of April of 4391 a bomb attempt in Romula caused five casualties. The Red Brigate new claim pushed a stronger earthquake inside the democratic-communist movement, leading to the Pizzo's resignment ten days later, on the 30th of April.

Hoxha secretariat (4391-4401) Edit

Revara's death (4391) Edit

Roberto Hoxha

Roberto Hoxha (4329-4412) was the First phase's last communist secretary

Appointed on the Workers' Holiday (1th of May), Roberto Hoxha was the first communist secretary to be assigned both without a congress or a primary election. The communist base strongly called his name, due to his views of compromise between the metzist-leonidist area and the democratic one inside the party. During his first months of secretariat, Hoxha publically helped the investigations to find Revara in the most short time possible, even if with the pass of month the hopes became always less stronger. On the 30th of October 4391 the Revara corpse was found near the Romula's communist section. Hoxha, in a famous speech, declared the born of a new era inside the Communist Party, right in the moment when its biggest exponent was brutally killed.

The Communist crysis and Party's dissolution (4392-4401) Edit

After the Revara's death and the great commemoration which took place all over the country, the Communist party faced a deep crysis, both during elections and inside the supporters: Istalia was strongly afflicted by the harsh events which happened, and large slices of the population - even the leftist ones - strived for a new time of peace. The struggle for socialism, or even for a social revolution, rapidly began to sear. The communist dream seemed to die: during the XVIth Communist Congress in 4396 Hoxha was re-confirmed General secretary, but to the istalians the communist organization seemed exhausted, without new ideas to improve the country. After five years of irrilevance, during the XVIIth Congress in 4401, Hoxha resigned his dimissions and the communist leaders decided for the dissolution of the party.

The second communist phase (4444-47) Edit

Garofani secretariat (4444) Edit

Gioia Garofani

Gioia Garofani (4412-), nephew of Ernesto Revara, was the re-founder of the PCI in 4444 and the first leader of the Second communist phase.

After 43 years of communist absence in the istalian political scenery, Giorga Garofani (4412-), nephew of former communist leader Ernesto Revara, utilized the Party rights she detained to re-found it. Seen the democratic evolution that the left took after the PCI dissolution, Garofani condemns the partial conquests of this movement, but praises the democratic ways it took; believing possible the constitution of a socialist society in a democratic regime, Garofani pushed forward the ideals of his grandad and declared the new Commmunist party as a full democratic organization which rejects any form of violence and totalitarism. This new party conception gained success in the Party's XVIIIth Congress ("We are back" its name), where the party for the first time in its history saw the affirmation of just one current, the one of the "Istalia's Democratic Communists". The Party Statuto saw the introduction of Endrigo Bellinguer and Ernesto Revara as ideological referrements after Metz, Ehnpreis and the democratical aspects of Vladimir Leonid.

PCI dissolution into Party of Istalian Socialism (4447) Edit

After three years of activity the Second communist phase gained a new agreement from the population, with the 14% of votes obtained during the 4444 General elections. By the way, the Communist political and intellectual elite felt that the Party organization mirrored too much of what was the communist totalitarian past not only in Istalia but all over Terra. After months of discussion, during the XIXth and last Communist Congress in 4447 Gioia Garofani declared the dissolution of the Communist Party into the Party of the Istalian Socialism of which she was immediately elected General secretary. The rights to the "PCI" name and his history were granted by Garofalo to the "Istalian Communist Museum" sited in Piracusa.

The Communist Party Statuto Edit

The Party's statuto saw great variation during the 70 years of existence. From the metzist-leonidist ideals of Antonio Masci coming to the democratic and libertarian values of Gioia Garofani, the political objectives (revolution or reform) and the political referrements (dictators or revolutionaries) saw a great change.

The Last Communist Statuto (4444-4447) Edit

"The Communist Party of Istalia is the vanguard party of all workers. The communists struggle to eliminate the exploitation of man by man, to break the interests of a few individuals in favor of the whole community. Every sincere communist is animated by the spirit of proletarian internationalism, helping to spread the ideas of emancipation all over the world. The communists oppose the conception of bourgeois democracy - a dictatorship of the minority - to a new form of democracy, that of the majority. The Communist Party of Istalia has its historical references in Metz and Ehrenpreis, approving Vladimir Leonid only in his democratic aspects, moving a long-term battle (the conquest of the socialist state) parallel to an immediate, aimed at achieving more humane conditions for all workers in a bourgeois regime.  The Communist Party is a democratic force which fights in the framework of democracy for the enhancement of every citizen's life conditions."

National and local governments Edit

National governments Edit

  1. Cabinet Bellinguer (4338-42), led by the PCI
  2. Cabinet Revara (4369-73), led by the PCi
  3. Cabinet Samara (4375-76), led by the United People's Party. The PCI had seven ministries (Internal, Defence, Justice, Infrastructure, Health, Agriculture and Environment)
  4. Cabinet Revara II (4380-84), led by the PCI

General secretaries and other informations Edit

General secretaries Edit

  1. Antonio Masci (4334-48) metzist leonidist
  2. Endrigo Bellinguer (4348-67) leonidist
  3. Ernesto Revara (4367-84) democratic leonidist
  4. Marco Pizzo (4384-91) metzist leonidist
  5. Roberto Hoxha (4391-4401) democratic socialist
  6. Gioia Garofani (4444-47) libertarian socialist

The Official Newspaper of the PCI was "Resistenza", founded in 4373 by Rosa Amburgo (4330-4422), to this day still Offical Newspaper of the Party of the Istalian Socialism.

References Edit