The History of Solentia is something convoluted and confusing. Such is the nature of Solentia in the current day that its radical masters have distorted its history and erased much of the certainty about past events for their own political purposes. It is one of the few nations where knowledge about historical events has become less certain as time goes on. Nonetheless, a great deal of information has been preserve outside of the nation well before the coming the many totalitarian regimes. Most of the early historical sources is available from the ancient libraries of Dorvik and Rildanor. The issues concerning the legitimization of primary sources is a major topic of its own, known as Solentian Ortho-Citation. However, we can begin with the very earliest history in 50,000 BCE.
The Prehistoric Era: 50,000-6,000 BCEEdit
The Kal'Nai Cultures: 50,000-20,000 BCEEdit
In Kal'Nai river basin in Fuwan, a race of peoples spread forth at some point around 50,000 BCE. The earliest Archaeological records show that these peoples were the first to inhabit Solentia. Spreading North from Fuwan, the Kal'Nai culture flourished for some 30,000 years. Their life was comprised mainly of hunting, gathering, and a strange series of religious rituals known by modern historians as "hiera" (after the Kalopian "ἱερα" for "holy rites"). These rites were depicted on numerous cave paintings from Fuwan to Teshuen to Orame. The only clear part of the rites is that it involved the sacrifice of some sort of cattle to a river god; cattle of some kind are shown thrown into a raging river that often has symbols indicating divinity. Apart from this trivia, the Kal'Nai cultures are very much a mystery to the modern world. They inexplicably died out around 20,000 BCE.
Archaic Era: 6,000-1500 BCEEdit
Proto-Agricultural Civilizations 6,000-3500 BCEEdit
With coming of a cooling period in 15,000 BCE, traces of human habitation in Solentia dwindle. They reemerge in 6,000 BCE with the return of a warmer, more prosperous era. In Orame in the North and Teshuen in the South, proto-agricultural societies emerge prominently. They seem to have been most involved in cattle-herding and a semi-nomadic life style. The records are found in various rock inscriptions that are a combination of illustration and an enigmatic alphabet of some sort that has not yet been deciphered. The existence of a written language at this time is remarkable and a testament to the relative advancement of the peoples of this period. Through the fragments of text that have been translated, scholars have shown that there is some ancestral memory of the Kal'Nai, and perhaps even an older culture than that.
Early Agricultural Period: 3500-1500 BCEEdit
Around 3500 BCE the cultures in Solentia and Kalopia grew in complexity and established a unitary cosmopolitan culture, characterized by including sumptuous palaces, elaborate frescoes, and widespread use of writing. Solentia and Kalopia were the site of a sophisticated urban trading civilization focused on the worship of a number of chthonic gods and enjoying close trade relations with the entire Majatran continent. Bull-jumping seems to have been a popular sport.
Archaeologists found a number of agricultural settlements from this period that were markedly different from their pastoral nomadic predecessors. For one, there seemed to be a centralized governing system: life must have been centered around the estate of the ruling lord or king. While the King controlled trade and market life, farmers and peasants lived in a decentralized manner, settling broadly around the fortified estates of the King. The crops were generally wheat and olives, with sheep and goats still playing a prominent role in agriculture ever since the proto-agricultural cultures.
There was no centralized state during this era, and the only unifying factor among the various palace-based polities in Solentia and Kalopia was their culture.
Classical Era: 1500-205 BCEEdit
Archaic Period: 1500-1150 BCEEdit
The pre-Enetric civilization in Kalopia and Solentia collapsed around 1500 BCE for unknown reasons, traditionally assumed to have come about as a result of the Enetric Migrations. However pre-Enetric cities show no evidence of sacking or violent conquest, and newer theories speculate that the collapse may have been a result of a combination of environmental and political-military factors, coming about as a result of drought, crop failure, famine, and the Enetric migration or invasion.
The collapse of the palatial civilization led to an end of urbanization and literacy, and society reverted to an agricultural structure. The newly-settled Enetrics, the ancestors of the Kalopians were organized into independent regions organized by kinship groups and oikoi or households, which later led to the emergence of the poleis or independent city-states. Around 1150 BCE the region experienced an economic recovery and the gradual rebirth of civilization. The Kalopian alphabet was introduced, used to write not only the languages of the settled Kalopians but the other languages in the region as well.
Similarly to the the situation in Kalopia, the small household units began to merge into city-states through a process called "synoecism". The main civilizations at the time were the Maenemoi, centered in Teshuan, and the Urghu, centered in Nukeya. The former were more focused on peace and technological advancement while the latter were more war-like and brutal. While the Maenemoi appear to have gained some political stability by 1200 BCE, the Urghu were still in constant war throughout this era. Both civilizations were non-Kalopian and spoke distinct languages with no known relatives, but they were heavily influenced by the emerging Kalopian civilization.
The rapid and marked rise of the Maenemoi ended the Archaic era and launched Solentia into a period of growth and prominence that would drive the course of the next 2000 years. The Meanemoi had taken on a level of advancement and sophistication by 1500 BCE that was comparable to that of the Kalopians. Through trade and learning they had grown past the simple decentralized system and had begun the development of genuine cities. Although the cities were ruled by Kings for this entire period, the wealth and prosperity of the upper classes drove the development of the Republics of the middle Classical Era. Civilization excelled to a point at which their ideas and knowledge imprinted itself on all Solentian culture and ideas. The Maenomian model of city-states was the status quo in most of the land by 1350, and the previous Urghu cultures were wiped away in the ensuing changes. Military might had partly to do with it, but colonization and the spread of ideas played a larger role in the permeation of these ideas across Solentia.
A major advancement of the Maenoman period was in literature. A number of the cities engaged in brilliant oratory and political spectacles that have been immortalized in their poetic oratory. Each line took the form of six measures, each one of which could have a long syllable followed by two short syllables or two long syllables in a row.
Post-Maenomian Period: 1150-1100 BCEEdit
During the rise of Maenomian city-states, certain regions in Northern Nukeya developed a rival culture directly descendant from the nearly-forgotten Urghu. These peoples profited from the military knowledge of the Southern cities, but retained a more barbaric life-style. In 1500 BCE they swept South under the leadership of their brilliant leader Alkaias and overthrew the stability of the last 350 years. The Maenomians collectively united and fought against their ancient foes. But with the coming of war came the rapid political coalescence of the city-states around the powerful metropolei of Teshuen; something of a united Maenomian nation emerged after the first ten years of fighting. So powerful was this force that the invaders from Nukeya were beaten back and then invaded themselves. The region was subjected to heavy taxation and tributary obligations for the next 200 years.
Kalopian Period: 1100-205 BCEEdit
The economic prosperity and blossoming trade resulting from urbanization allowed the neighboring Kalopians to experience new heights in economic growth for their time, which resulted in previously unmatched cultural feats in architecture, drama, science, philosophy, and democracy. Owing to this growing prosperity the Kalopian city-states began colonizing much of Solentia, gradually overshadowing and eventually assimilating the Manomian civilization, either peacefully or, more often than not, by force of arms.
- A Foreign Observer Comments on the Kalopian Hegemony
From the journal of Alcandrus of Kanjor, 1025 BCE:
"The rise of the Kalopians in the recent era has been driven in part by the Republican policies of the conquerors and the appeal of these policies to the aristocrats in the other cities of Maenomia. It is not peculiar for cities to throw open their gates to the coming armies in hope that the Monarchs would be overthrown. In almost all cases, this will occur, and the nobility rules through a Republic centered around a Senate. In cities where the nobility are loyal to the Monarch, the conquerors will remove both parties and install a democratic government. Thus, the pressure is on the nobles to surrender, and, being powerful in this age of trade and commerce, the nobility often do succeed."
Between 957 and 953, Solentia was involved in a war that broke down between two sides: the Kalopian cities and the loyal regions, and a Grand Alliance of non-Kalopian powers. In the course of the war Solentia was briefly unified under the leadership of a polity in Orame known as Rwerso. Rwerso however was defeated and colonization continued for the next few centuries.
Post-Classical Era: 205 BCE-489 CEEdit
Cildanian rule: 205-95 BCEEdit
As a result of the Selucian-Cildanian Wars (398-280 BCE) the Cildanian Hegemony emerged as the largest empire in Majatra. During the wars Kalopian colonies in what is today Deltaria were also brought under Cildanian rule and thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Cildanian governor in Leucopolis. Dissatisfied with the rule of the Cildanian-appointed tyrants, the Kalopian city-states in Deltaria initiated a revolt in 229 BCE. Lasting until 221, the revolt received substantial assistance from the city-states on the Kalopian mainland, particularly Helios. After the revolt was crushed by the Cildanians in 221, the Cildanian Republic decided to punish Helios and its allies for their support of the revolt. Moreover, seeing that the many Kalopian city-states in Kalopia and Solentia possessed a constant threat to the stability of the Cildanian Empire, the Cildanians decided to conquer the whole region. In 215 BCE the first Cildanian invasion of Kalopia began. During the war with the Cildanians many Kalopian city-states banded together, and managed to win a number of significant victories. However, the general disunity of the poleis allowed the Cildanians to fight them one by one, and eventually most of Kalopia and Solentia were brought under Cildanian rule by 205 BCE.
Under the Hegemony the previous trend of Kalopianization continued, and by the end of Cildanian rule the old Maenomian language was fully replaced by Kalopian in day-to-day speech. Economic prosperity led to a revival in construction and urban development, and temples and palaces were built throughout the region, as well as paved roads that linked the main cities.
Jelbic rule: 95 BCE-489 CEEdit
Starting with the middle of the 2nd century BCE the Cildanian Hegemony entered a prolonged period of decline and instability, which also affected Solentia. The civil wars and military decline of the Empire paved the way to the conquest of large portions of the Cildanian empire by the invading Jelbo-Tukarics, who in 95 BCE defeated the Cildanian garrison in Solentia and conquered the entire province. For the next four centuries the Solentian region would remain under the rule of the Jelbo-Tukaric tribes, occasionally united in petty khanates. For the first time since the Kalopian colonization, the culture of Solentia abruptly changed. Now the rulers and much of the population were no longer the ancestral "Solentians," but foreigners. The new rulers brought changes in culture and society so profound that no one fifty years back would recognize the land.
Internal wars arose frequently over land disputes and no national army could be raised without a great deal of trouble, and the process often took several years. By 400 CE, there was virtually no centralized power left in the region. Now, the definition of Solentia was less certain than ever before as Jelbic tribes mixed with the lordships and feudal domains. Linguistic changes were also in the making. The Kalopian dialects that were somewhat unified and mutually intelligible were mixed with various Jelbo-Tukaric tongues and local languages grew ever more prohibitive of national unity.
Augustan Era: 489-1250Edit
Early Augustan period: 489-640Edit
Seven Kingdoms: 640-880Edit
Augustan rule lasted until the eighth century when, as a result of the weakening of the Augustan Empire due the Tokundian invasion, the periferic dominions began to assume more and more power and already in the seventh century seven kingdoms, founded by the traditional dynastic ruler of the previous seven Augustan provinces, became autonomous as vassals of the Augustans.
Solentian Pentarchy: 840-1250Edit
Towards the 9th century the seven kingdoms experienced a period of gradual centralization. By 840 the seven kingdoms were replaced by the Pentarchy, the "rule of five", composed of five domains which were independent in all but name. Each domain was centralized and secure, but ruled by its own Pentarch. Each Pentarch would have a powerful court and a large standing army. Wars would occasionally occur between the states, but it was not until the 13th Century that any conquest would occur. The Pentarchy was culturally homogeneous; the only separation was political. These 400 years were spent in periodic war and some cultural advancement. Namely, the power of the Augustan Church weakened in this period, and the secular leaders gained an increasingly prominent place of power and independence. The populace was given no new rights and the power of the Pentarchs was undisputed.
In 1156, the Pentarch Aldrinost I began a series of military campaigns that would begin the re-unification of Solentia. His brilliant military genius was matched by no other in the pentarchy. But he died in 1163 with only 3 of the 5 domains united. His successor was weak and powerless. He lost one of the captured kingdoms before being deposed and replaced by Aldrinost III in 1187, a military man of prowess surpassing his uncle Aldrinost I. It took 41 years, but the great Pentarch succeeded in his task. In 1228, he conquered the last remaining independent domain, uniting Solentia as a single political entity for the first time in its history.
But Aldrinost's prolonged military campaign drained the treasury and made unified Solentia vulnerable to foreign threats, and in only three decades all of Solentia would be conquered by the rising Ahmadi Caliphate.
Ahmadi Era: 1250-1486Edit
Qanzar Empire: 1486-1934Edit
The first records of the House of Kansar, as House of Qanzar then Quanzar, are from the late 16th century CE, when the various Majatran tribes living in Solentia since the days of the Ahmadi Caliphate were united by Karim Ibn Bener Al Qanzar, who established its dominion in Solentia, founding the Qanzar Emirate. The successors of Karim Ibn Bener started to profit of the definitive dissolution of the Caliphate establishing an Empire that at its height encompassed Solentia, Kafuristan, Wantuni, and the Sarrentina Peninsula.
Before the rise of the Empire however Qanzar was just one of the many petty Emirates emerging from the collapsing Caliphate, struggling with internal and external competition for most of its early existence. In 1565, the economy went sour due to excessive rainfall, flooding, famine, and disease. The nobility withdrew into their fortified manners and administration crumbled for some 5-7 years. When the disaster was finally over, there was further political in-fighting. The Emir was dead and his heirs fought for the succession. Not helping matters, the nobility chose one heir while the powerful clergy chose another. War would have broken out had not the latter died from a bout of epilepsy. The new Emir was crowned in Metapontum and war only narrowly averted. The Shura however, had consolidated power in the absence of the Emir, and the army now answered to the Minister of War, not to the Emir. By 1650, the Emir's powers were greatly eaten away.
But, with the death of Emir Rashid II in 1655, the successor, named Lutfi the Bold, quickly reversed the tide of aristocratic power. His policies and daring regained him all of the unwritten privileges that had changed hands to the ministers over the last century. Lutfi set about a 60 year era of effectively absolute monarchy. The power of the Shura reverted to an advisory status while the army pledged allegiance to the Emir and only to the Emir. But while the Emir held political power, the populace was growing ever more affluent and economically influential. Lutfi was a man in the right place at the right time, for by his death in 1715, it had become impossible to maintain an absolute monarchy: the populace wanted rights and they wanted freedom.
And so when Wasim V ascended to the throne in 1715, he was faced with a burning call for reform. His father and predecessor had squandered immense amounts of the treasury in order to strengthen the army and carry out foreign petty wars. This was a good strategy in the short run, as it consolidated power and unity, but financially it was a disaster. With no money left in the state's coffers, Wasim could neither pay his troops nor feed his citizens. The cries for reform grew louder. But the new Emir was ill-trained and easily frightened. Instead of trying to bargain with the people, he assumed that he could simply crush them, and with little foresight he used his under-payed troops to put down protests and slaughter dissidents on the streets.
The crisis reached a head on September 8, 1720, when the Emir's troops carelessly stormed into the Anleitya Masjid, the most holy mosque in the Capital, and arrested a clergyman for preaching treason. It was rumored that they had also destroyed a sacred relic of Prophet Ahmad beloved by the people. The rumor was treated as truth, and within days riots broke out in Metapontum. Soon they spread to Halion, Akran, Gylsa, Bouthrotum, and more, each bringing chaos and bloodshed. The Emir fled to Nukeya, where the rebellion was more limited, but he could not restore order, not with his under-payed troops, and not with his uninspiring character.
On October 10, 1720, after nearly a month of chaos and disorder, the rebels took power in Metapontum. They preached of equality, spiritualism, and a return to the romanticized early days of the Caliphate. Yet in Halion, a different government was declared as well by the landed gentry and supporters of the aristocracy. A war was taking shape from the ubiquitous chaos, one that would decide the future of Solentia. Wasim was not involved in this conflict; he was not invited by the nobles, who had chosen their own candidate for the throne, nor was he given refuge by the rebels, of course. But the war was not to last long. The nobles were too held back by petty concerns of aristocratic niceties while the rebels were driven by a patriotic, religious, and revolutionary fervor. In only a year, the victory was decisive for the rebels.
Radicals, feeding off of fears of a counter-revolution, took control of the Emirate and began to lay out purge after purge. Thousands were brutally executed daily around the country; the spiritualist component of the revolution was ignored and shunned as religious leaders and the devout were slaughtered without concern. After two years of blood baths, the Grand Vizier, Alquh al-Qanzar, a distant relative of the ruling family, seized State control and proclaimed himself Emir. Things quieted down and prosperity once again returned to Solentia.
The new Emir then proceeded to consolidate his power, and under his rule and that of his successors the Qanzar Emirate emerged as the new hegemon of East Majatra, beginning the conquest of the neighboring Emirates and petty kingdoms.
In 1750, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abu Hafs al-Wantuni, a descendant of a separate line of the Watuni dynasty living in exile in Solentia, raised a rebel force and, with the aid of the Qanzar Emirs, succeeded in driving out the Deltarian colonials, to the joy of much of the native populace. Celebrations of independence were short-lived, however, because Abd al-Aziz soon declared his allegiance to the Qanzar Empire, who appointed him the Wali (Governor) of its new Wilayah of Wantuni. A few years later, when the Hosian monarchy of the Istalians started a hard anti-Ahmadi campaign, the Emirs used this event as an excuse to attack the Istalians kingdoms and to take even more land. In the 18th century, the Qanzar Emirate came into conflict with the Estalian kingdoms of in the south, and this contact initiated a prolonged power struggle that ended in the subjugation of all of modern day Quanzar under a single dynasty. By 1771, control of the entire peninsula was cemented by the great Qanzar emir Harun ibn Muhammad's victory at the Battle of Reggio Ingris. In the aftermath of this battle the Qanzari Emirate stretched across all of modern Istalia, minus the island of Alaria, ruled by the Kingdom of Istalia. The Qanzars initiated a campaign of forceful Majatranization of the Istalian and Wantuni lands, although under the Qanzars Wantuni enjoyed relative autonomy and saw a period of calm and economic growth. Various local nobles, many of them members of junior branches of the House of Qanzar, ruled portions of the territories in a quasi-feudal system. Culture and science flourished under the patronage of the Qanzari lords, who styled themselves as "Emirs of Therak and Pheykran, Lords of Greater Quanzar," and political stability cultivated a robust mercantile economy.
The collapse of the Empire came about as a result of a series of revolutions in Wantuni and Solentia and the loss of control over Kafuristan as a result fo Artanian colonialism, reducing the Emirate to its Istalian dominions. In Wantuni the native Wantuni and Kalopian people became hateful of the harsh tributes in currency and human capital that the Qanzars demanded and, allying with one another, the two groups rebelled against the Qanzars and declared Wantuni an independent republic in 1930, and a few years later a revolt in Solentia proclaimed its independence and established a Dominate.
Modern History: 1934-presentEdit
Dominate era: 1934-2000Edit
In 1934, business leaders from around Solentia conspired with the Army. The generals arranged their soldiers to march on Metapontum. The Emir was ousted, but kept as a figurehead, and the new leader, the "General Minister" was given control of the State. Within several years, the Fascists strengthened their hold, and they no longer even pretended that the Emirate was alive. The nation was known as "The Dominate of Solentia," and it was ruled by the iron-fisted General Minister. Soon the business interests were forgotten, and all power was focused on the dominance of the State. Closed off from the rest of the world, Solentia grew into a brutal despotic nation devoid of any amenities and friendliness. But all of these qualities were dependent on the brilliance, insanity, and motivation of one leader: the General Minister Alier Troud. Upon his death in 1998, the government became a Republic after a brief period of civil conflict. The population had watched secretly in horror as the rest of the world moved forward while they lay in the sweltering oppression of a tyrant. And so, upon gaining freedom, the people of Solentia set about catching up for lost time.
First Republic: 1998-2279Edit
With the tides of instability at an end, Solentia set out on a path for a bright future. The age was initially one of prosperity, much like the early Dominate was. Conflict was minimized and there was a general love of democracy and the political situation was calm compared to many other nations at the time. Some notable events included Solentian involvement in the Deltarian-Quanzari Conflict during the 22nd century, and militarist attacks on Kafuristan in 2207 and beyond due to that nation's support of slavery. Other than these events, relatively little conflict occurred in Solentia until 2279, with the coming the radical right parties.
The Vanioka-Nuncirist Empire: 2279-2324Edit
First emerging in 2279, the new fascist parties immediately seized power by passing a new cabinet and passing State of Emergency laws that modified the foundations of the State and removed basic civil liberties. It is still not clear to this day how the Fascists took over from the relatively stable Republic, but it is clear that they were masters of Machiavellian realpolitik. They cared not for how they voted or what they did: so long as they gained seats and gained power. In the first decade of the new century, some of these Fascist parties arranged a disastrous invasion of Kazulia that ended in chaos and instability on the home-front. Indeed, within only several years, liberal movements were back in partial power and former Fascists were fighting each other while trying to hold on to their old offices and influence.
The Transitional Polity: 2324-2344Edit
This state of ideological limbo existed more or less for 10 years. The liberals gained their most strength early on, but all the while neither side could fully control the nation. The totalitarians, those being the Nuncirists and the Panterrans, were opposing each other while they vied for the support of the weak liberals in cabinet coalitions. But in 2344, a break through occurred: the last liberal party fell out of use and the Totalitarians made not only a truce, but a powerful alliance.
The Archonic Era: 2344- Edit
The Nunciro-Panterran Empire: 2344-2357Edit
At this point, the united Totalitarians set about locking the nation from new comers and new ideas. Ever since `44, no new party or movement has appeared in Solentia save some token resistance that is powerless to affect any change. The ideas of Panterranism matured fully and the two ideologies merged somewhat and became inter-dependent. An attempted conquest of Wantuni was attempted, but it failed for the most part. But back in Solentia, a new ideology, that of Archonism, took hold. A fusion of Panterranism and Nuncirism, Archonism promotes the arrogance and unbridled exploitation of power that must be undertaken by the rulers.
The Archonic Imperium: 2357- Edit
And so in 2357, the rulers passed reforms that embraced the Archonic doctrine as Solentia's doctrine. A new wave of patriotic fervor swept through the nation and soon a new invasion of Wantuni was arranged.