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Kaenirelona
Kaenerelona
Spoken in
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Total speakers
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Official language in

The Kaenirelona Language family is comprised of several closely related languages. In general, they all share the same grammatical features with a few differences in phonology, syntax, and vocabulary.


Living Members Edit

General Language Edit

The General Language refers to the language spoken, with dialectal variations by about 36% of the Dugathan Kaenirelona tribes. For the purposes of exhibition, the General Language shall be used to represent Kaenirelona.

Phonology Edit

Kaenerelona Languages tend to be heavily consonantal languages. Pronounciations also tend to be distinctively nasal, a sound difficult for non-native speakers to emulate.

Plosives Edit

Some Kaenerelona languages retain voicing distinctions on plosives, some do not. Becasue speakers of the General Language have been in contact of speakers of Valruzian, a language which does retain the distinction, intimately for centuries, the language does retain the distinctions. The distinctively voiced plosives are rare though, most plosives are an intermediate sound and considered unvoiced.

  • B voiced bilabial, as in Bat
  • P unvoiced bilabial, as in Parrot
  • D voiced alveolar, as in Dove
  • T unvoiced alveolar, as in Toucan
  • G voiced velar, as in Goose
  • K unvoiced velar, as in Kestrel

Nasals Edit

Kaenirelona consonants tend to be nasalized, and as such, actual nasals are not found in Kaenirelona languages themselves (Kaenirelona itself is a Valruzian word). Many Kaenirelona have difficulty pronouncing true nasals, and would tend to pronounce them as the respective voiced plosive (e.g. Kaenirelona ---> Kaedirloda), however in the modern era as Kaenirelona have experience from an early age with Valruzian, this accent appears to be slowly dying out.

An interesting feature of the language is the written use of "n" in some Kaenrelona words (such as "than" or land). This only appears at the end of words appears to be a nasalized version of the plosive "?" It is not clear whether this is a native linguistic feature or a borrowing from other languages.

Some Kaenirelona languages, such as Melaweri, do not make voicing distinctions in plosives, and so will use "M" and "N" orthographically for bilabials and alveolars (and some "N'" for velar or retroflex). Depending on the language, these letters are either nasals or nasalized plosives.

Fricatives Edit

Kaenirelona languages almost universally make no distinctions between voiced and unvoiced fricatives. Whether the sound is primarily voiced or unvoiced depends exlcusively on dialect. Again, most fall somewhere in between.

The General Language of Kaenrelona uses six fricative sounds, although only the three coronal fricatives (Th, Z/S, J/C) are all that common.


  • V to F labio-dental fricative as in Vase or Face
  • Th dental fricative as in Then or Thin
  • Z to S alveolar fricative as in Zen or Sin
  • J to C post-alveolar fricative as in azure or assure
  • X velar fricative not used in English
  • H glottal fricative as in hand

Flaps and Liquids Edit

Most Kaenirelona languages tend to use the alveolar and lateral-alveolar flaps for the "L" and "R" sounds, and most do make the distinction. The liquids "L" and "R" are both used in the General Language instead of the flaps in many dialects, another feature adopted from Valruzian.

Labialization and Palatalization Edit

Kaenreelona languages make intensive use of both labialization and palatalization.

Rules of Labialization and Palatalization:

  • All plosives can be both labialized and palatalized.
  • All fricatives except X and H can be labialized.
  • All fricatives except V/F and Th can be palatized.
  • Flaps/liquids are never palatalized

Palatalized and labialized sounds are considered to be distinct letters, instead of combinations of sounds or variations of phonemes. In Latin transcription, "y" indicates palatization and "w" indicates labialization. Because Valruzian does not have true labiablization however, many transcriptions indicate labialization as a "u." This is a feature of the Valruzian tedency to labialize through assimilation in some dialects, and is considered improper when writing in Kaenirelona langauges.

Affricates Edit

Kaenirelona languages use a large number of affricates. If it can be readily pronounced by native speakers, chances are that there are Kaenirelona words of some sort that use it. These are not considered seperate sounds, but rather as cound combinations.

Vowels Edit

Like most consonant-heavy languages, Kaenirelona uses few vowles. The General Language, generally uses three, although some dialects use four. Four is about the maximum number of vowels, although a few Kaenirelona languages in Tirkalara lacking labialization and palatialization features use as many as six.

The vowels for General Kaenirelona are, depending on dialect:

  • O as in l'ook or lode
  • I as in like, leek, or occassionally let
  • A as in at, or more rarely, luck

Some dialects also use an open to mid back vowel, as in cot and caught, represented by "u." The distinction in unimportant.

Sometimes a word will appear to have no vowels. This usually occurs after a "y" or a "w" preceded by a plosive, and a schwa is inserted after the word. The schwa sound is only pronounced when within or between words. If the schwa occurs before a pause, the sound is no longer truly a pulmonic-egressive sound, and becomes highly nasalized and almost a click.

Note: For all vowels the pronunciations given are the default. As with most langauges with a limited vowel inventory, the phonemes have many allophones and pronunciations change drastically depending on the surrounding contexts.

Phonological Constraints Edit

Kaenirelona languages may have no more than one vowel per syllable, diphthongs are not allowed.

General phonological rules require that (fricative)(plosive)(fricative)(liquid)(palatal/labialization)vowel(liquid)(fricative)(plosive)(fricative), fairly expansive. However no obstruent sound ending one syllable may be followed by an obstruent starting another in the same verb.

Verbs Edit

Kaenirelona verb rules come always in groups of three. It is unclear whether this has cultural significance or is just happenstance, but it makes learning the language easier as a second language and harder for those used to Romantic grammar patterns.

Infinitives are indicated by the particle "ad"

Verb Classes Edit

Verbs in Kaenirelona fall into three classes: passive, active, and transitive. The verb stem for each will generally be the same, but will use different auxillaries and infinitive endings.

Passive Verbs are verbs that in English are generally formed by a form of the verb "to be." For example, in "he is dead," to be dead is a passive verb. Passive verbs use the verb "to be" (roughly equivilent to the Spanish "ser") as an auxillary and are ended with the infinitive vowel "o".

Active Verbs are generally verbs than in English could be modified by auxillary "to do." For example, in "he dies," die is an active verb. Active verbs use the verb "to do" as an auxillary and are ended with the infinitive vowel "i".

Transitive Verbs are a bit more difficult to precisely describe, generally describe a change in state. For example, in "he is dying," if the death is not occuring at the moment (i.e. the man is terminally ill), it would be a transitive verb. Transitive verbs use another "to be" (roughly equivilent to the Spanish "estar") as an auxillary and are ended with the infinitive vowel "a".

Verb Tenses Edit

Kaenirelona verbs have six basic tenses: three simple, and three imperfect tenses, one each for past, present, and future.

Simple tenses indicate an action done once, or multiple actions done close together and completed, regardless of whether it is ongoing or completed. (I once went to Kihnterha, or, for three days I stayed in Kihnterha and visited the sites).

Imperfect tenses by contrast indicate an action that continues indefinitely. (I used to go to Kihnterha during the summers) Basic Tenses

	Past 	Present 	Future

Simple -#ri -#lo -#la Imperfect -il#r -or#r -ar#r

Participles Edit

Kaenirelona languages are unusual in that they have three participles.

Past Participles are used, like in English, to form the perfect tenses.

Present Participles are used, also like in English, to form the progressive tenses.

Future Participles are used to indicate something that could, would, or should happen, to form the conditional and the subjunctive (which are effectively the same tense).

Participles are combined with "to go," conjugated for the relative tense to form their new tenses. Participles Past Participle Present Pariticiple Future Participle -ad# -akt# -athr#

Compound Tenses Edit

Compound tenses are formed by conjugating the verb al jwi "to go" (irregular) combined with the participle. Compound Tenses

	Perfect 	Progressive 	Subjunctive 	Prospective

Simple Past jri [stem]ad# jri [stem]akt# jri [stem]athr# jri [stem]# Imperfect Past jwitir [stem]ad# jwitir [stem]akt# jwitir [stem]athr# jwitir [stem]# Simple Present jwiro [stem]ad# jwiro [stem]akt# jwiro [stem]athr# jwiro [stem]# Imperfect Present jwor [stem]ad# jwor [stem]akt# jwor [stem]athr# jwor [stem]# Simple Future jwila [stem]ad# jwila [stem]akt# jwila [stem]athr# jwila [stem]#' Imperfect Future jwar [stem]ad# jwar [stem]akt# jwar [stem]athr# jwar [stem]#

The Perfect Tenses indicate an action completed on or prior to the reference (e.g. "I will have completed it by Tuesday" indicates that on or before Tuesday, the action will be completed).

Note: Having a perfect imperfect is not a contradiction. For example: "I used to have my homework completed on time," (which, grammatically in Kaenirelona would be more like "I usedtogo completed my homework on time") would indicate that once the speaker finished their homework on time, but implies that they no longer do.

The Progressive Tenses indicate an action that is ongoing at the time of the reference (e.g. "I am talking on the telephone with my friend"). The Subjunctive Tenses are not interchangable and generally more confusing for speakers of languages without a future participle (practically every langauge except Kaenirelona). They indicate uncertainty, but in a system that some find confusing.

  • The Past Subjunctive is similar to, but not, the Conditional Perfect tense in most other languages, indicating that something might or would have happened.
  • The Present Subjunctive indicates an uncertin present, that something may or might be happening. The Conditional is one with the Present Subjuntive.
  • The Future Subjunctive indicates an uncertain future, that may or may not happen.

The Prospective Tenses indicate something that is going to happen, on or after the time prior to the reference. (e.g. "I was going to go to the store," or in Kaenirelona grammar "I went go to the store.") The prospective tense were not initially consided tenses, but rather a combination of go and the infinitive used to indicate a vague idea. After the "ad" infinitive marker was dropped, the prosepective tenses began to be classified as tenses.

Note: Compound tenses can be combined to form even more tenses, either by conjugating the verb "to go" as the participle, or by conjugating the associated auxillary verb. In either the actual verb is the final conjugated.

Other Verb Inflections Edit

Normal verbs are inflected for number and formality in General Kaenirelona. Other Kaenirelona languages maintain different conjugations, dropping either or both of these distinctions and/or inflecting for person. One lowland dialect of Kaenirelona inflects verbs to reflect the object of the clause, instead of the subject. This is likely another result of centuries of contact with Valruzian, whose trigger-topic structure functions in a similar manner.

Imperatives Edit

There are three forms of imperatives in General Kaenirelona: the "we" form, the "you" form, and the formal form. That the imperatives are inflected differently from normal verbs indicates-- and other Kaenirelona languages prove-- a much more complex verb conjugation system, much of which has been lost. Imperatives "We" Form "You" Form "Formal" Form -#doz -#taj #dwo

Function of Associate Auxillaries Edit

The three verbs ad glo, ad tji, and ad sta are known as the associate auxillaries to their classes. While they can be used between "to go" and the actual verb in multiple compound verbs in some dialects, and this use is understood among all General Kaenirelona speakers, generally they are not used in this manner, which is considered somewhat archaic.

The primary uses of associate auxillaries are as follows:

1. To form the empathetic forms. (e.g. But I do do that OR "[Stop equivocating] does he do that?" as opposed to the English "Does he do that or not?") 2. To form compound infinitives out of adjectives and participles (e.g. to be finished, to do running) 3. Kaenirelona clauses have no if, the associates function in its place. While Kaenirelona also lacks a "then" for if-then clauses, so is sometimes used. Equally valid for "then" however are the associate. (But if he dies then they will live ---> But does he die they will live)

Other Auxillaries Edit

There are several other auxillary verbs in Valruzian.

The following three adjust meaning and are added by conjugating the auxillary and adding the verb inifinitive minus the "ad" infinitive marker.

  • Ad Avwa to have can be used interchangably with "to go" in some dialects. It is also used to indicate something that must (e.g. "I have to go now." ----> I have go now).
  • Ad Thi to give is used to indicate "should" as in the logical conclusion (e.g. "It should happen unless things change").
  • Ad Zli to owe is used to indicate "should" as in te right thing to do (e.g. "He should do that to make up for it").

"To come" and "to make" are used to adjust word order. Either the auxillary + infinitive or the auxillary + [infinitive -"ad"] may be used.

  • Ad Zahi to come is used to form reflexives. ( e.g. "I like myself." ----> "I come like (me).")
  • Ad Ki to make can be used to reverse the subject and object. (e.g. "I hate him." ----> "He makes hate me."

"To get" forms the passive voice and can be formed either by "[aux] + [inf-ad" or by "ad [aux] + [inf-ad]."

  • Ad Vawi to get forms the passive voice (e.g. "they got beat" instead of "they were beaten")


Important Auxillary Verb Forms Edit

There are four main auxillary verbs used in the Kaenrelona languages (though "to have" and "to come" were once also widely used). Of these "ad jwi" or "to go" is certainly the most important. Until recently "ad jwi" was the only verb with recognized irregular forms. However the other auxillaries are irregular in speaking, as are several main verbs.

In modern times people have taken to writting the auxillary verb forms as generally pronounced. It is acceptable, if odd, and often difficult to pronounce, to conjugate all verbs except "jwi" as regular.

Italicized verbs indicate irregular forms. Ad Jwi (To go)

	Past 	Present 	Future

Simple jri jwiro jwila Imperfect jwitir jwor jwar Participle jwari jwakti jwatwi


Ad Glo (To be: Passive)

	Past 	Present 	Future

Simple glori gol glal Imperfect glor glodor glalo Participle glado glakto gladlo


Ad Tji (To do)

	Past 	Present 	Future

Simple tjili tjilo tjila Imperfect tjilir tjorir tjarir Participle tjadi tjakti jathri


Ad Sta (To be: Transitive)

	Past 	Present 	Future

Simple stari stalo stala Imperfect stilar storir star Participle stada stakta stathda


Personal Pronouns Edit

There are four cases of personal pronouns in General Kaenirelona: subject, direct object, indirect object, and possessive. This is an anomality, as in most Kaenirelona languages the indirect object is the same as the possessive, and the genitive case is formed with a postposition.

Note: The possessive inflection "ga/go"(depending on dialect) is almost identical to the Valruzian inflection for patientive. When removed the remaining pronoun is the indirect object. In many areas the possessive inflection still precedes the pronoun. That all these factors demonstrate a borrowing from Valruzian is uncontested.

Kaenirelona personal pronouns have four formality distintions: singular, inclusive formal, inclusive, and exclusive. This distinction is sometimes called, innaccurately, number. Formality, while not precisely correct, is more accurate. The distinction is somewhat difficult for non-native speakers to grasp.


Table of Personal Pronouns (Nominative)

	Singular 	Formal 	Inclusive 	Exclusive

First Person ya ikya ida ibwa Formal Person va thi vwi twa Second Person wa kwi iwi idwo Third Person gja gjida jwa ijwo


Table of Personal Pronouns (Direct Object)

	Singular 	Formal 	Inclusive 	Exclusive

First Person yi kyi dwi iv Formal Person av ith ivwa twi Second Person awa akwo wi od Third Person agj dig ij jwij


Table of Personal Pronouns (Indirect Object)

	Singular 	Formal 	Inclusive 	Exclusive

First Person ayo kyo do ava Formal Person vo tho vwo two Second Person wo kwo iwo dwa Third Person gjo jod jwo ijyo


Table of Personal Pronouns (Possessive)

	Singular 	Formal 	Inclusive 	Exclusive

First Person gayo gakyo gado gava Formal Person gavo gatho gavwo gatwo Second Person gawo gakwo giwo gadwa Third Person gaxo gajod gajwo gixo


Explanation of Personal Pronouns Edit

Singular Pronouns contain only one person Formal Pronouns contain at least one person of the highest level of person and may contain others. Inclusive Pronouns contain at least one person of the highest level, and must contain at least one of the next lowest level. Exclusive Pronouns contain multiple persons of that level, except for first person pronouns which may contain multiple third persons. They are considered to be somewhat formal.

There are also four levels of pronoun:


First Person Pronouns are self-explanatory: I and we Formal Person Pronouns mean effectively, "one" and can be either you or I in the singular, but must be some form of "we" in the other forms. Second Person Pronouns also self-explanatory: you Third Person Pronouns again, self-explanatory: he/she/they


This is generally somewhat confusing, and a table follows: Personal Pronouns(Rough English Translations)

	Singular 	Formal 	Inclusive 	Exclusive

First Person I royal we you & I they & I Formal Person one(you or I) some (people) you all and I OR you, I, and they we all (everybody) Second Person thou formal you you and others you all (here) Third Person he/she they1 they2 they (normal)

1Used when refering one or more persons present but not addressed 2Used when "they" includes the speaker

Non-Human Personal Pronouns Edit

Kaenirelona also uses separate pronouns for non-humans, though it is not clear if this is borrowed from Valruzian. It seems to have developed independently, as most Kaenirelona languages use some form of this. All non-human personal pronouns are equilant to the one word "it" in English.


Animative Pronouns include either living or mobile objects, or mobile life forms, this varies by dialect and even by speaker. Objective Pronouns include inanimate objects and, again varying inanimate life-forms and machines Tangible Pronouns include things that can cleary be felt, but not grasped such as war and storms Conceptual Pronouns include things that can not be touched or felt, but exist, such as time, thought, liberty, and justice.

Other Pronouns Edit

Kaenrelona has three levels of demonstrative: within reach, within sight, and out of sight (roughly this, that and yon).

Additionally, there is a level of demonstrative used to demonstrate uncertainty (such/some/any), that is is also used as the interrogative.

The uncertainty pronouns can be used as relative pronouns, but such use is generally limited to writting, and conisdered antiquated and overly formal. Relative pronouns are generally replaced by the complementizer, in both spoken and most written Kaenirelona.

The nouns described are not usually part of the demonstrative, but time and place are always one word, and there are a couple other exceptions as well.

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are generally used in two ways: either to modify a noun, or to form a compound verb with an associate auxillary.

Adjectives can be formed in three ways ways. Many adjectives are root words on their own. Others can be formed by either from a participle or by adding an adjective-indicative suffix. There is no set rule for which is used depends on the word. Often there are several forms of an adjective, and which is used depends on context.

Adverbs Edit

Historically adverbs had to agree with the verb and were indicated by a -#v# suffix.

Nowadays that trend has changed somewhat, and adverbs that can apply to verbs of more than one class have fixed. Additionaly, the final vowel has fixed to "i."

Nouns Edit

Syntax Edit

Affixes Edit

Part of Speech Altering Edit

Meaning Altering Edit

General Notes Edit

Formality Edit

Kaenirelona langauges have extensive distinctions based on formality. This is not an indicator of deference, and perhaps familiarity would be a better term.

Formal commands are not used to a superior one knows well, but are used to a stranger one recognizes as an equal.

Historically, they were used to adress one of a different rank than onself, and for a craftsman both a chief and a serf would be adressed by the formal command.

At one time this was taken even further and the distinction was based on profession type (merchant would be formal to artisan), and even in some case by profession itself (smith would be formal to wright). This tradition was dissolved with the end of mercantilism, and gradually distinctions on craft, vocation, and class all faded out.

Formal Address Edit

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