Name and EtymologyEdit
The nation has been known under a variety of names throughout its history, often used in competition with each other. The use of one name or another has often been the result of political and ideological preference and sparked powerful and occasionally violent disputes. In an attempt to put an end to disputes on the nation's name the government adopted a policy in 4229 which established the terms "Kalopia" and "Wantuni" as interchangeable synonyms, with use depending on history and tradition.
- Kalopia is the oldest name of the nation, in use since antiquity. The name "Kalopia" contains the root καλός (kalós), meaning "beautiful", "good", "noble" in ancient Kalopian, and the earliest attested name containing this root is the ancient city-state of "Kalops" in Solentia. The name fell into disuse in the Middle Ages and was readopted by Kalopian nationalists during the national awakening in the 25th century. When it is not used to refer to the entire nation, "Kalopia" has a narrower meaning, referring to territories inhabited by ethnic Kalopians.
- Wantuni is the name used to refer to the nation since the centuries after the Ahmadi conquests. Its origins are unknown, other than the fact that it initially referred to the Wantuni Dynasty, who established their own Emirate after the fall of the Caliphate. In time the term came to refer to the territory over which the Dynasty ruled. Since the resurgence of Kalopian nationalism, the term has generally been used only by Majatran speakers. In its narrow sense "Wantuni" refers to the territories inhabited by ethnic Wantunis, while its use for the entire nation is often, but not always, seen as a symbol of Wantuni supremacism.
- Ajam is a term introduced under the Ahmadi Caliphate to refer to the region. Literally meaning "silent", "mute", or "foreigner", "Ajam" was a generic term used under the Caliphate to refer to non-Jelbic and non-Majatran-speaking subjects of the Empire, being used more specifically to refer to Kalopians, Istalians, and Augustans. Initially a derogatory term, "Ajam" has in time acquired a more neutral meaning of "foreigner" in general and "Kalopian" in particular, and was the term preferred by Ahmadi Kalopians before the emergence of Kalopian nationalism. The term was occasionally used as a synonym for "Kalopia" in its narrow sense, i.e. the areas inhabited by ethnic Kalopians.
- Najd, meaning "highland", is a poetic term for the nation used by Majatrans since the Ahmadi Caliphate, referring to the nation's hilly terrain, and it is used to refer to the nation especially when it is under Wantuni rule. More narrowly the term refers to the nation's southernmost province, and it is also occasionally used to refer to all regions inhabited by ethnic Wantunis (who refer to themselves as Najdīyūn, "highlanders").
- Kalopia-Wantuni emerged as an informal compromise term in the 36th century, when "Kalopia" and "Wantuni" were used under their narrow ethnic definitions. However even during that time Kalopians preferred to refer to the nation as "Kalopia" and Majatrans as "Wantuni". Since then "Kalopia-Wantuni" has occasionally been in use as the official name of the nation under regimes emphasizing the equality of Kalopians and Wantunis.
- Central Majatra is another compromise term for the nation which was also introduced in the 36th century, intended as an ethnically and linguistically neutral way of referring to the nation. However, given its ambiguity, the term failed to gain wide popularity, and was rarely used as the official term of the nation.
- Kalopi-Siphina is a term for the nation that was coined by the Reform Party at the end of the 43rd Century. It is a name promoted by nationalists who hold anti-Majatran, anti-Turjak, and sometimes anti-Ahmadi tendencies. When used as a demonym, however, Kalopi-Siphinan only refers to ethnic Kalopians, Siphinans, and Istochniaks. For a brief period of time, the nation was officially name the Republic of Kalopi-Siphina, before reverting back to Kalopia following a military junta. People who are supportive of a Kalopi-Siphinan State still refer to the country informally as just Kalopia.
History of all the Governments and Periods Edit
|c. 1500 BCE - c. 1000 BCE||Enetric tribes||Tribal polities|
|c. 1000 BCE - 205 BCE||Kalopian city-states||Numerous independent republican and monarchic polities|
|205 BCE - 71 BCE||Cildanian Hegemony||Province of oligarchic republic|
|71 BCE - 487 CE||Jelbic tribes||Tribal polities|
|487 - 1232||Augustan Empire||Province of empire|
|599 - 991||Deltarian tribal empire||Tribal polities|
|991 - 1397||Tokundian Empire||Province of empire|
|1232 - c. 1500||Great Empire of Turjak||Province of empire|
|c. 1500 - 1750||Emirate of Wantuni||Monarchy, Deltarian vassal state|
|1750 - 1930||Empire of Quanzar||Province of empire|
|1930 - 2031||Republic of Wantuni||Democratic republic|
|2031 - 2117||Empire of Wantuni||Absolute monarchy, Solentian puppet state|
|2117 - 2376||Independent Wantuni Republic||Democratic republic|
|2376 - 2429||Empire of Wantuni||Absolute monarchy|
|2429 - 2698||Independent Wantuni Republic||Wantuni apartheid republic|
|2698 - 2790||Aristocratic Kingdom of Kalopia||Constitutional monarchy|
|2790 - 2793||Kalopian Empire||Absolute monarchy|
|2793 - 2923||Kalopian Republic||Democratic republic|
|2923 - 2934||Kalopian Empire/Autocracy||Authoritarian republic|
|2934 - 3011||Kingdom of Kalopia||Constitutional monarchy|
|3011 - 3078||Kalopian Dictatorship||Authoritarian republic|
|3078 - 3094||Kingdom of Kalopia||Constitutional monarchy|
|3094 - 3143||Federal Republic of Kalopia||Federal republic|
|3143 - 3237||Independent Wantuni Republic||Wantuni apartheid republic|
|3237 - 3300||Kalopian Empire/Autocracy||Dictatorship|
|3300 - 3330||Independent Wantuni Republic||Wantuni apartheid republic|
|3330 - 3417||Kalopian Empire/Autocracy||Nationalist dictatorship; military dictatorship (after 3405)|
|3417 - 3468||Helioclid Dominion||Military dictatorship|
|3468 - 3477||Oligarchic Dominion||Oligarchy|
|3477 - 3515||Wantuni Hegemony||Wantuni apartheid republic|
|3515 - 3534||Central Majatran Federative Democratic Republic||Federal democratic republic|
|3534 - 3557||Central Majatran Beylerbeylik||Constitutional monarchy, Deltarian vassal state|
|3557 - 3569||Great Patriarchy||Theognosian theocracy|
|3569 - 3581||Majatran State of Wantuni||Wantuni apartheid republic|
|3581 - 3659||Hegemonic Kalopian Kingdom||Constitutional monarchy|
|3659 - 3673||Zahiri Emirate of Wantuni||Zahiri theocracy|
|3673 - 3713||Province of Kalopia-Wantuni||Autonomous province of Razamid Caliphate|
|3713 - 3777||Revolutionary Republic of Kalopia||Democratic republic|
|3777 - 3827||Hegemonic Kalopian Kingdom||Constitutional monarchy|
|3827 - 3893||Central Majatran Union of Kalopia-Wantuni||Democratic republic|
|3893 -3980||Republic of Kalopia||Democratic republic|
|3980 - 3995||Freehold Republic of Kalopia-Wantuni||Oligarchic republic|
|3995 - 4062||Central Majatran Union of Kalopia-Wantuni||Federal democratic republic|
|4062 - 4100||Great Kalopian Republic||Unitary presidential republic|
|4100 - 4112||Central Majatran Union||Federal presidential republic|
|4112 - 4129||Kalopian Republic||Unitary presidential republic|
|4129 - 4203||"Area commonly referred to as Wantuni"||No central government|
|4203 - 4209||Union of Kalopia-Wantuni||Federal democratic republic|
|4209 - 4259||Union of Kalopian Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships||Authoritarian federal socialist republic|
|4219 - 4270||Federal Republic of Kalopia-Wantuni||Federal democratic republic|
|4259 - 4264||Thallerist Hegemony of Kalopia||Monarchy|
|4264 - 4270||Confessional Republic of Kalopia||Confessional republic|
|4270 - 4278||Central Majatran Confederation||Confederation, confessional republic and federal republic|
|4278 - 4292||Imperial State of Kalopia||Constitutional monarchy, despotate of Augustan Empire|
|4292-4308||Republic of Kalopi-Siphina||Presidential Republic|
|4305-4314||Great Kalopian Republic||Military Junt|
|4314-4353||Great Republic of Kalopia||Semi-Presidential Parliamentary Republic|
|4353-4431||Great Republic of Kalopia||Presidential Republic|
|4431-4437||Kalopian Republic||Semi-Presidential Republic|
|4437-4444||Kingdom of Kalopia||Parliamentary Monarchy|
|4444-4456||Free State of Kalopia||Transitional Parliamentary Republic|
|4456-present||Freeholder Republic of Kalopia-Wantuni||Oligarchic Presidential Republic|
Located in the center of the Majatran continent, Kalopia borders the Majatran Sea to the north and thePreartic Ocean (or Lievenian Sea) to the south. Kalopia experiences one of the most diverse climates on Terra, with a Mediterranean climate in the far north, an alpine tundra and glaciers in the northern and southern mountains, a warm desert climate as well as a temperate continental climate in the center, and an Alpine climate along the southern coast. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November). The geography of Kalopia gives it access to many natural resources, primarily: lignite, petroleum, iron ore, bauxite, lead, zinc, nickel, magnesite, marble, salt, and hydropower potential.
Politics and GovernmentEdit
The Freeholder Republic of Kalopia-Wantuni is an oligarchic presidential republic in which the only citizens allowed to partecipate to the politic life of the country are the freeholders, those who hold title to landed property worth above a value set by the legislature time after time. The Freeholder Republic's Constitution, recognizes to the freeholders the privilge of election to and serving in public office, the privilege of petitioning government bodies at any level and the "colorful" privilege of dressing in ancient Kalopian and Wantuni robes.
About the highest political bodies and figures of the Freehold Republic, it provides an Executive Head of State and an Unicameral Legislature which act and work like into a democratic presidential republic but in the framework of the oligarchy that is this regime.
The Head of State, the Archon (Kalopian: Αρχων transl. Archon), directly elected each 2 years through a two round system, is both head of state and government, chairing the cabinet formed by 12 ministers, appointed by the President. The cabinet, however, is subjected to the approvation by part of the Kalopian-Wantuni legislature which majority must confirm its confidence.
The national legislature of is the Assembly (Kalopian: ἐκκλησία transl. Ecclesia or Ekklesia) is the unicameral legislative body of Kalopia, formed by 75 representatives elected each 2 years, together with the President, through a proportional electoral system. It is the only body which can adopt laws, ratify treatie, confirme Presidential measures and approves, with a vote of confidence, the cabinet proposed by the President.
Previous government systemEdit
The Union of Kalopian Revolutionary Socialist VanguardshipsEdit
Kalopia has been a republic since the end of the chaos which interested Kalopia after the fall of the socialist regime, known as Union of Kalopian Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships established in 4209 as part of the Majatran Revolutionary Socialist Federation. Its Constitution defined the state as a direct democracy and a socialist state without any political parties, governed by its populace through local popular councils and communes, known as "Vanguardships". The Vanguardships in turn delegated their leadership to People's Congresses, who ran the communes on their behalf. The People's Congresses, as well as the trade unions, formed the National Congress of Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships which acted as the legislative body of the socialist state. The People's Congresses also elected the Chairman of the National Congress of Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships, who acted as the Head of State of Kalopia.
In addition to the Vanguardships and Congresses, the most important executive body in the Socialist Vanguardships' Kalopia was the Command Council of Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships, an institution formed of the main Communist, Anarchist, and Libertarian forces loyal to the Vanguard revolution. De iure, the Command Council was fully subordinate to the National Congress, and its main role was to nominate the Council of Ministers (playing the role of a Cabinet), which was then approved or rejected by the National Congress, and to act in an advisory capacity to the national and local congresses. However, the Command Council was the de facto main ruling body of Kalopia, exercising both legislative and executive powers and establishing the policies of the entire state, in what critics considered a dictatorial fashion.
The kalopian anarchyEdit
Before the establishment of the socialist state, Kalopia was unique among the nations of Terra in that it officially did not have a government, being the only region where anarchist ideals succeeded in abolishing the state in 4129. Consequently all governmental services, including justice, legislation, and the military, were taken over by international and local companies, most infamously the slaving corporation Eilomax.
Previously Kalopia, known as the Central Majatran Union, was a democratic, federal and presidential republic. Executive power was vested in the President of the Union, who was elected directly by universal popular suffrage. Occasionally, a premier or prime minister would serve as a lesser executive official. Legislative power was exercised by the 500-member Congress of the Union, which was elected by mixed-member proportional representation. The Supreme Court was the highest court of appeal and was composed of five judges, appointed by the President.
Kalopia consists of 5 regions called Provinces. The current provinces are:
Kalopia is under a friendship and cooperation with Kazulia.since 4328.
The Kalopian Defense Forces (Modern Kalopian: Καλοπικές Δυνάμεις Άμυνας, tr: Kalopikés Dynámeis Ámynas) also known as the Armed Forces of Kalopia (Modern Kalopian: Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις της Καλοπίας, tr. Énoples Dynámeis ti̱s Kalopías) is the combined forces of the Helioclid Dominion. It comprises three branches of service, the Kalopian Army, the Kalopian Navy and the Kalopian Air Force.
After the establishment of the Union of Kalopian Revolutionary Socialist Vanguardships in 4209 Kalopia has implemented a mix of central planning and local self-management and private co-operatives, initiating a large-scale transformation of society and economy along communist and anarcho-syndicalist lines. A broad system of councils and co-operatives was built, and roughly a third of production is in the hands of autonomous co-operatives, while the rest is under government control, with a command economy accounting for most production in the nation. Kalopia has also completely abolished the income tax, preferring to rely instead on tariffs and prohibitive corporation and luxury goods taxes. Additionally, the government deliberately lowered prices on essential products to make them accessible even to the poorest members of society, while also providing an all-encompassing welfare system, including child benefits, agricultural subsidies, free public healthcare and pharmaceuticals, and free public housing for low income families. Running a relatively low deficit of ₯ 111,162,115,224 (2.39% of GDP), Kalopia has a total GDP of ₯ 4,648,958,431,384.Taking into account most exchange rates, this makes Kalopia a middle economy on Terra. The economies of the two constituents nations, Kalopia and Wantuni are very different in nature, the northern Kalopian one being highly diversified while the southern one largely depends on the petrochemical industry.
Given that Kalopia is a coastal nation, bordering seas to both the north and the south, the shipping industry is probably the largest component of the Kalopian economy. Ships flying the Kalopian flag are a common sight throughout the world, but particularly in the Majatran Sea and, according to the National Maritime Industries Board, the Kalopian merchant fleet accounts for possibly as much as 26% of the world's fleet capacity, making it one of the world's largest. The NMIB states that Kalopia ranks first in not only tankers and bulk carriers, but also containers, and ranks second in "other ships." Today's merchant fleet is at an all-time high of roughly 12,000 ships. Kalopia is host to literally hundreds of the world's major shipping firms, including the notable National Shipping Company, whose controlling interest is publicly owned.
Given Kalopia's large maritime background, it is no surprise that fishing is another major industry within the nation. Though substantially smaller than Kalopia's merchant fleet, most estimates agree that the nation's commercial fishing fleet is larger than most. Primarily centered around the Majatran Sea, the Kalopian fishing industry caters mainly albacore, salmon, beluga, and bass. These fish are sold to major outlets across the globe, but are also popular at Kalopian fish markets, where live fish, fish meat, and fish products (such as caviar or fish oil) are sold freely. On the opposite coast, in the Perarctic Ocean, commercial fishing is not quite as large an industry, but is dominated heavily by whaling, in demand for whale oil, whale meat, and margarine.
Perhaps the most notable component of Kalopia's economy is the tourism industry, from which it gains as much as 15% of its GDP. As recently as 2789, the former capital city of Polykratos welcomed 34.9 million tourists. Kalopia has long been a major tourist attraction for its rich cultural tradition as a center of philosophy, science, and the arts; its historic sites; its well-known spas and thermal springs; and finally its scenic Majatran beaches. In the past, Kalopia had been criticized for lagging behind other nations, as far as tourism amenities and infrastructure were concerned, but in recent years such criticism has subsided. Kalopia now contains literally tens of thousands of hotels, ranging from family-oriented beach resorts to self-proclaimed "seven-star hotels," to inexpensive hostels designed for adventurers on a low budget, and such heavy tourism has given way to booming nightlife sectors in most urban areas of Kalopia. In order to transport such a large influx of tourists, Kalopia relies heavily upon its national carrier, Kalopian Airlines, and hundreds of smaller airlines across the nation. Another popular method of transport is by sea, and Kalopian cruise lines are becoming a popular attraction throughout the Majatran Sea.
Despite limited space and resources, agriculture is also an important area of the Kalopian economy, with the most prominent products being wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef, and dairy products. Other fairly important sectors of the Kalopian economy include food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, mining, and petroleum. The service industry is a rapidly growing side of the economy, currently dominated by multi-service insurance giant Aristocrat Insurance Group, Ltd., with a number of Kalopian banking and financial service organizations gaining credence at home and around the world.
Kalopia is a diverse nation, with several of ethnic groups and religions claiming large percentages of the population and often finding themselves in conflict. Kalopia has a majority ethnic-Kalopian population but its major religion is Ahmadism, but on the whole, the nation seems to be harmonious especially since the EPS took power in 4314.
- Kalopians: 50%
- Siphinans: 18%
- Wantunis: 10%
- Turjaks: 10%
- Istochniaks: 4%
- Arbanians: 3%
- Manoush: 1%
- Istalians: 1%
- Asli: 1%
- Other: 2%
- Ahmadi: 67%
- Hosian: 23%
- Irreligious: 7%
- Other: 3%
Notable traditional Kalopian cultural achievements include the invention of such ideas as democracy, philosophy, literature, historiography, political science, many mathematical and scientific principles, and theater. The culture of Kalopia is clearly not static, however, and has continued to expand and evolve.
|Nations of Majatra|