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Kundrati
Kundrati
Spoken in Kundrati Union
Region
Total speakers
Language family
Writing system
Official language in Kundrati Union


The Kundrati language is a language spoken in the Kundrati Union.

Phonemes Edit

Vowels Edit

Kundrativowels

  • i: pronounced like the i in machine
  • e: pronounced like the a in table
  • a: pronounced like the o in top
  • o: pronounced like the o in home
  • u: pronounced like the u in tube

There are also several dipthongs, or vowel combinations.
Kundratidipth

  • ai: pronounced similar to the i of kite
  • ei: pronounced similar to the a of same
  • oi: pronounced similar to the oi of join
  • eu: no English equivalent; as in the Italian 'Europa' or the Spanish 'feudo'
  • au: pronounced similar to the ou of house

Consonants Edit

Kundraticonsonants When the red, blue, or green transcription is not listed, they are the same as the black.

  • p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, f, s, l: like in English
  • j: pronounced as the y in yes
    tt and dd: pronounced like t and d, but in the same place that y is pronounced. May sound somewhat like 'ty' and 'dy'.
  • th: always prounced as in thin, not as in this
  • x: pronounced like the 'sh' of ship
  • ñ: pronounced as in the ñ of El Niño; like an n pronounced in the same place that y is. May sound somewhat like 'ny'.
  • r: pronounced as in Spanish, using the same flap of the tongue in the American latter or ladder
  • rr: pronounced as in Spanish, as in arriba
  • c: pronounced like the 'ts' of hats ('c' is used as in Polish)
  • tx: pronounced like the 'ch' of church

Phonological Constraints Edit

Syllables can be Vowel-Consonant-Vowel, Consonant-Vowel, or Vowel-Consonant. For instance, 'jar', 'geh' (pronouncing the h), 'xix', 'txa', 'mi', and 'i?' would all be 'legal' syllables. The only consonant cluster (string of multiple consonants) is stop+r; that is, 'pr', 'br', 'tr', 'dr', 'ttr', 'ddr', 'kr' and 'gr' are all acceptable. This consonant cluster must happen at the beginning of a syllable. 'Pra', 'brem', and 'ttri' would all be acceptable, while 'abr', 'ugr' and 'tebr' would not.

Grammar Edit

Generally, Kundrati is an inflective, absolutive-ergative language.

There are four categories of Kundrati nouns. They are:

  • People and titles; these nouns end with -e. Example: paure (child)
  • Other living things (including plants); these nouns end with -ak. Example: anmalak (animal)
  • Inanimate objects (furniture, houses, etc.); these nouns end with -un. Example: saulkun (chair)
  • Other nouns (abstractions, etc.); these nouns end with -ath. Example: alderdath (political party)

Pronouns Edit

  • Ni "I"
  • Di "You (singular)"
  • Is "He/She/It"
  • Gon "We"
  • Fik "You (plural)"
  • Me "They"

ArticlesEdit

Articles are inflected for plurality and declension.

Kundrati Noun Inflection
Category Translation
-e (paure) -ak (anmalak) -un (saulkun) -ath (alderdath)
Definite Ike (paure) Ika (anmalak) Kun (saulkun) Mat (alderdath) the _______
Plural definite Ije (paureja) Ija (anmalaja) Ka (saulkuña) Ja (alderdatta) the _______s
Indefinite Tek (paure) Kat (anmalak) Nu (saulkun) Ram (alderdath) a _______
Plural indefinite Teja (paureja) Katta (anmalaja) Nuja (saulkuña) Rana (alderdatta) some ______s

Noun CasesEdit

There are 8 noun cases a noun can be in, and all cases have a plural and singular form.

  • Absolutive: Used for the subject of sentences without a direct object, and direct objects. For instance, in the sentence 'Ike paure ferita isek.' (The child slept), 'paure' is in the absolutive case because it is the subject of a sentence in which there is no direct object. In the sentence 'Ika anmalap ike paure ikutgu isekois.' (The animal saw the child), 'paure' is again the absolutive because it's the direct object of a sentence.
  • Ergative: Used for the subject of sentences with a direct object. For instance, in the sentence 'Ike pauret ika anmalak ikutgu isekois.' (The child saw the animal), 'paure' is in the ergative case as 'pauret' because it is the subject of a sentence in which there is a direct object.
  • Vocative: Used for verbal commands, when calling someone's name. For instance, in the sentence 'Ike paured, edyadzo ddaf!' (Child, eat!), 'paure' is in the vocative case as 'paured' because someone is addressing the child directly.
  • Genitive: Used to describe ownership, similar to the ending -'s in English. For instance, in the sentence {TBD} ({TBD}), 'paure' is in the genitive case as 'paurek' because the {TBD} described belongs to the child.
  • Dative: Used for indirect objects. For instance, in the sentence {TBD} ({TBD}), 'paure' is in the dative case as 'paurer' because the {TBD} described is {TBD} to the child.
  • Ablative: Used to describe the point of departure for an action. For instance, in the sentence {TBD} ({TBD}), 'paure' is in the ablative case as 'pauretik' because the {TBD} described is moving away from the child.
  • Terminative: Used to describe the destination for an action. For instance, in the sentence {TBD} ({TBD}), 'paure' is in the terminative case as 'paureran' because the {TBD} described is moving towards the child.
  • Instrumental: Used to show with what an action is done. For instance, in the sentence {TBD} ({TBD}), '{TBD}' is in the instrumental case as '{TBD}' because it is being used to {TBD}.
First Declension (-e) Edit
Kundrati Noun Case: First Declension
Singular
Case Suffix English prep. Sample Translation

Absolutive

e - paure child

Ergative

et - pauret child

Vocative

ed - paured! child!

Genitive

ek -of paura of the child

Dative

er -to, -for paurer to the child

Ablative

etik -away from, -out of pauretik away from the child
Terminative eran -towards, -into, -onto paureran towards the child
Instrumental ex -using paurex using the child
Plural

Absolutive

eja - paureja children

Ergative

ejat - paurejat children

Vocative

ejad - paurejad! children!

Genitive

aja -of pauraja of the children

Dative

ejer -to, -for paurejer to the children

Ablative

etil -away from, -out of pauretil away from the children
Terminative ejan -towards, -into, -onto paurejan towards the children
Instrumental etxa -using pauretxa using the children
Second Declension (-ak) Edit
Kundrati Noun Case: Second Declension
Singular
Case Suffix English prep. Sample Translation

Absolutive

ak - anmalak animal

Ergative

ap - anmalap animal

Vocative

ita - anmalita! animal!

Genitive

ka -of anmalka of the animal

Dative

ad -to, -for anmalat to the animal

Ablative

arir -away from, -out of anmalarir away from the animal
Terminative aran -towards, -into, -onto anmalaran towards the animal
Instrumental akax -using anmalakax using the animal
Plural

Absolutive

ayak - anmalayak animals

Ergative

ayap - anmalayap animals

Vocative

iyar - anmaliyar! animals!

Genitive

kam -of anmalkam of the animals

Dative

adda -to, -for anmalatta to the animals

Ablative

alir -away from, -out of anmalalir away from the animals
Terminative arran -towards, -into, -onto anmalarran towards the animals
Instrumental attax -using anmalattax using the animals
Third Declension (-un) Edit
Kundrati Noun Case: Third Declension
Singular
Case Suffix English prep. Sample Translation

Absolutive

un - saulkun chair

Ergative

u - saulku chair

Vocative

on - saulkon! chair!

Genitive

uk -of saulkuk of the chair

Dative

uran -to, -for saulkuran to the chair

Ablative

ur -away from, -out of saulkur away from the chair
Terminative o -towards, -into, -onto saulko towards the chair
Instrumental ux -using saulkux using the chair
Plural

Absolutive

uña - saulku?a chairs

Ergative

uñu - saulkuñu chairs

Vocative

unun - saulkunun! chairs!

Genitive

oña -of saulkoña of the chairs

Dative

uñan -to, -for saulkuñan to the chairs

Ablative

unar -away from, -out of saulkunar away from the chairs
Terminative oñe -towards, -into, -onto saulkoñe towards the chairs
Instrumental uñax -using saulkuñax using the chairs
Fourth Declension (-ath) Edit
Kundrati Noun Case: Fourth Declension
Singular
Case Suffix English prep. Sample Translation

Absolutive

ath - alderdath party

Ergative

at - alderdat party

Vocative

eth - alderdeth! party!

Genitive

atka -of alderdatka of the party

Dative

iran -to, -for alderdiran to the party

Ablative

ut -away from, -out of alderdut away from the party
Terminative akra -towards, -into, -onto alderdakra towards the party
Instrumental ac -using alderdac using the party
Plural

Absolutive

atta - alderdatta parties

Ergative

attak - alderdattak parties

Vocative

etta - alderdetta! parties!

Genitive

etma -of alderdetma of the parties

Dative

afin -to, -for alderdafin to the parties

Ablative

itta -away from, -out of alderditta away from the parties
Terminative arra -towards, -into, -onto alderdarra towards the parties
Instrumental atx -using alderdatx using the parties

Verbs Edit

Usually, the part of a sentence that deals with an action is made up of two verbs: the 'main verb' and the 'auxiliary verb'. The auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject and object of the sentence, as well as the time of the action (past/present/future). The main verb is conjugated for everything else: perfection (I have done it vs. I do it), progression (I am doing it vs. I do it), and mood (You do it vs. It is important that you do it vs. Do it! vs. You do not do it). Passivity (Someone/something did it vs. It was done) is sometimes shown by using a 'subjectless' form of the auxiliary verb.

For instance, 'The voters elected Bob.' is 'Iye sokeyat Bobe adlegu mekois.', while 'Bob was elected.' is 'Bobe adlegu ekois.'

Main verb Edit

As mentioned earlier, the main verb is conjugated for perfection, progression, and mood. There are five verb declensions in Kundrati. Two are used for intransitive verbs, and three are for transitive verbs. Verbs which can be both are usually sorted for the more important category, and those that are too close to call (e.g. to eat) are often put in one of the three transitive declensions.

-id (intransitive) Edit
CONJUGATION, lomid (to sleep)
Tense General Example English
Infinitive -id lomid to sleep
Indicative -ef lomef sleep
Perfect/Participle -ide lomide slept
Progressive/Gerund -edo lomedo sleeping
Subjunctive -it lomit it is important to sleep
Imperative -ud lomud sleep!
Negative -il lomil not sleep
-da (intransitive) Edit
CONJUGATION, feritda (to arrive)
Tense General Example English
Infinitive -da feritda to sleep
Indicative -a ferita sleep
Perfect/Participle -de feritde slept
Progressive/Gerund -dako feritdako sleeping
Subjunctive -det feritdet it is important to sleep
Imperative -dit feritdit sleep!
Negative -dal feritdal not sleep
-gum (transitive) Edit
Third declension (-gum), ikutgum (to see)
Tense General Example English
Infinitive -gum ikutgum to see
Indicative -gu ikutgu see
Perfect/Participle -gat ikutgat saw
Progressive/Gerund -kai ikutkai seeing
Subjunctive -tu ikut'tu it is important to see
Imperative -go ikutgo see!
Negative -gul ikutgul not see
-co (transitive) Edit
Fourth declension (-co), edjaco (to eat)
Tense General Example English
Infinitive -co edjaco to eat
Indicative -cu edjacu eat
Perfect/Participle -tto edjatto eaten
Progressive/Gerund -kon edjakon eating
Subjunctive -to edjato it is important to eat
Imperative -txo edjatxo eat!
Negative -cul edjacul not eat
-se (transitive) Edit
Fifth declension (-se), hatekse (to hold)
Tense General Example English
Infinitive -se hatekse to hold
Indicative -sim hateksim hold
Perfect/Participle -the hatekthe held
Progressive/Gerund -sen hateksen holding
Subjunctive -do hatekdo it is important to hold
Imperative -sem hateksem hold!
Negative -sel kateksel not hold

Auxiliary verb Edit

The auxiliary verb 'af' plays a crucial part in the sentence formation of Kundrati.

Present tense Edit
Present Tense of Af
Object
Ni Di Is Gon Fik Me
Subject Ni Ñathe Ñabe Ñafis Ñahon Ñafik Ñame Ñaf
Di Ddathe Ddabe Ddafis Ddahon Ddafik Ddame Ddaf
Is Isathe Isabe Isafis Isahon Isafik Isame Isaf
Gon Gonathe Gonabe Gonafis Gonahon Gonafik Goname Gonaf
Fik Fikame Fikade Fikais Fikado Fikale Fikan Fika
Me Meathe Meabe Meafis Meahon Meafik Meame Meaf
Athe Abe Afis Ahon Afik Ame
Past tense Edit
Past Tense of Af
Object
Ni Di Is Gon Fik Me
Subject Ni Ñekone Ñekode Ñekois Ñekogon Ñekofik Ñekome Ñeko
Di Ddekone Ddekode Ddekois Ddekogon Ddekofik Ddekome Ddeko
Is Isekone Isekode Isekois Isekogon Isekofik Isekome Isek
Gon Gonekone Gonekode Gonekois Gonekogon Gonekofik Gonekome Goneko
Fik Fikune Fikude Fikuis Fikugon Fikufik Fikume Fiku
Me Mekone Mekode Mekois Mekogon Mekofik Mekome Meko
Ekone Ekode Ekois Ekogon Ekofik Ekome
Future tense Edit
Future Tense of Af
Object
Ni Di Is Gon Fik Me
Subject Ni Nipene Nipere Nipeis Nipegon Nipefik Nipeme Nipe
Di Dipene Dipere Dipeis Dipegon Dipefik Dipeme Dipe
Is Ispene Ispere Ispeis Ispegon Ispefik Ispeme Ispe
Gon Gotene Gotere Goteis Gotegon Gotefik Goteme Gote
Fik Fikpene Fikpere Fikpeis Fikpegon Fikpefik Fikpeme Fikpe
Me Mepene Mepere Mepeis Mepegon Mepefik Mepeme Mepe
Pene Pere Peis Pegon Pefik Peme

Adjectives Edit

Adjective declension
Cases Number/Examples
Singular Example Plural Example
-e -ei raberei -eiju rabereiju
-ak -ail raberail -aiju raberaiju
-un -in raberin -iñu raberiñu
-ath -ati raberati -attu raberattu

See AlsoEdit

~ K u n d r a t i U n i o n ~

History | Politics | National Symbols | Geography | Language

~ G o v e r n m e n t ~

KUN Ministry of Defense | KUN Foreign Affairs Ministry | KUN Ministry of Finance

~ P o l i t i c s ~

Alderdath Progrisi Lagaja | Alderdath Raberi Koncirlaki Erradiki | Libertarian Socialist Party Phalange | Ugly Synarchist Coalition | Kundrati Unity

~ O r g a n i z a t i o n s ~

National Unification Committee

~ B u r e a u c r a c y ~

KUN Central Bureau | KUN Constitution | Archives Domain

~ G e o g r a p h y ~

Lirnak | Jildrath | Peghonai | Pilgon | Celania

~ T o u r i s m ~

Arkham | Kasaema | Venora | Keita | Riverford | Tamasine | Elwai

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