The Holy Luthori Empire is considered to be among the world's leading states and has for a long time been involved heavily in international politics and relations. The Emperor and the Imperial family continue to be a driving factor in the success of the Empire, but in recent years the monarch has become less important and popularly-elected government has become more and more powerful. The Imperial Chancellor is the head of government and oversees the cabinet. It should be noted that the Empire's political structure is maintained mainly outside the system of normal governance with the monarch still having a considerable amount of power.
This name persisted until the union of Luthori and Alduria with the ascension of Philip I to the throne in 2610, which resulted in, due to the mixing of the Aldurian and Luthorian populations as well as an influx of the Aldurian upper classes into Luthori, the Luthorian language as it is today. This led to the Selucianisation of Lutherland through the Aldurian Luthorie, which would become in Luthorian simply the name "Luthori".
Main article: History of Luthori
A full history of Luthori from its creation to the XXIst century.
Luthori is located on the eastern coast of Artania. To the north is the Bay of Luthor, to the west is Beluzia, and to the south is Narikaton and Darnussia and Hobrazia. The vast majority of Luthori consists of rolling hills which can be found in the west of the country along the border with Beluzia and Narikaton and Darnussia. There is a mountainous region running through its center. The land is relatively flat near Luthori's coastal regions in the east. Luthori is also notable for its mostly green landscape. It's countryside is covered with green fields and lush forests. It is believe that Martyn Luthor himself acknowledged this, describing the Luthorian countryside as "This Green and Pleasant Land". Luthori has a temperate climate and experiences rainfall all year round. Temperatures vary between the seasons but are rarely higher than 30°C during the summer months and do not often fall below -10°C in the winter. The average yearly temperature is 15.7°C. Rain falls on average 130.9 days of the year. Luthori's coastline is described as "smooth" and has very few indents unlike the coastlines of countries such as Egelion and Kanjor. Luthori's coastal cliffs, known as the "White Cliffs of Luthor", are famous around the world for being white due to its composition of soft, white, chalk.
As an empire, Luthori is divided into a number of Fiefs. The largest subdivisions are Duchies, of which there are six, although the Duchy of Adlerberg is not not administered like one and is in practice counted as part of the Duchy of Utagia, being administered both as a Marquessate and an Earldom. Marquessates are the second subdivision and there are two in every Duchy with the exception of Utagia, where Adlerberg fills the role of that Marquessate. The third subdivision is the Earldom, of which there are two in each Marquessate, with the exception of the Marquessate of Kensdale, which has three and is thus considered the most powerful and prestigious in the country. The last and smallest subdivision is the Barony of which there are twelve in each Duchy and sixty nationwide.
Duchies are ruled jointly by a popularly elected Governor and the ruling Duke, who head a Duchy's executive and a Ducal council which is elected by popular vote. Marquessates are governed by the ruling Marquess, which heads the executive, and a noble council which is elected by the Earldoms' legislators which acts as a legislative branch. There is no elected executive in Marquessates which means that Marquesses are powerful individuals. Earldoms are ruled by an Earl and a Bailiff who is appointed by the popularly elected Earl's council, which is quite powerful because it also elects the members of the noble council. Finally, Baronies are jointly ruled by the Baron and a town council. In reality, most real power and authority is concentrated at the Ducal and Earldom levels with the Marquessates' noble councils only meeting a few times a year while town councils only take care of very local issues.
The structure of Luthori's political system is extremely complicated and is notorious for its layers of bureaucracy and high numbers of important positions. Though in recent years, attempts to simplify the governmental structure have proven successful.
The Holy Luthori Empire is a constitutional monarchy. It is defined as constitutional because the its government operates within the confines of the 3rd Imperial Constitution(-Abolished-) and is defined as aristocratic to distinguish it from other constitutional monarchies where the monarch is merely a figurehead.
The Holy Luthori Empire is governed by the Head of State (the Emperor), the Heads of Government (Imperial Chancellor), His Majesty's Cabinet, His Majesty's Privy Council, and the Imperial Diet. Luthori is divided into five subdivisions named "Duchies", each with an elected assembly of 129 members. Each Duchy is led by a Premier.
The Head of State and ruler of the Holy Luthori Empire is the Holy Luthori Emperor. While he is not directly involved in the day to day details of the administration of the Empire, he does have major discretionary powers and the right to intervene when necessary. The Emperor's will is represented by two executive bodies which effectively see to the everyday administration of the Empire. These are the Privy Council and the cabinet. In the past, the cabinet held most executive power and the Privy Council was little more than a group of advisers. However in that trend has completely reversed and the Privy Council holds most of the actual executive power while the cabinet appears to be more symbolic.
Legislative power is held by the Imperial Diet. Every loyal subject of the Emperor is by law granted the right to vote and elect representatives to the Diet. The Diet has the power to enact legislation and the sole prerogative of amending the Imperial Constitution.
Some contemporary observers suggest that the adjective "semi-feudal" be added to describe Luthori's government system. While most legislation is decided on a national (Imperial) level, its implementation is left almost entirely in the hands of the rulers of the Empire's Fiefs and the various Landed Aristocrats who exercise total executive control over their respective demesnes (Dukedoms, Marches, Earldoms and Baronies).
The Monarch, or Emperor, is the Head of State of the Holy Luthori Empire. During much of Luthori's history, monarchs have both gained and lost control of the duties that originally belonged to the position depending on the of the Holy Imperial Diet and the nature of public opinion. At present, the Emperor is officially the Empire's Head of State and chief executive and therefore has many real and extensive powers including executive powers and powers of appointment. The Emperor is the absolute head of the military and may override any order in this field, while the Emperor also has full discretion to appoint every member of the Privy Council except the head administrator, the Imperial Seal-Bearer, and to dismiss them as he pleases. As the Great Officers of State which also sit on the Privy Council essentially govern the nation, the Emperor rules by proxy with the full knowledge that he may dismiss any Privy Councillor that does not do as he pleases. Privy Councillors are almost exclusively members of the High Nobility since the Emperor's support and power largely depends on the extremely powerful aristocracy with the whole system being somewhat of an unwritten agreement. The Emperor is also the supreme head of the Holy Luthori Church, or Church of Luthori, and has complete control over it. Given the immense power that the Church has in Luthori the Emperor can further influence the people through religious means.
The current Imperial line was that of the House of Orange-Villayn and was considered to be Luthorian-Aldurian. The line descends from the union of Philippe II of Alduria and Mary I of Luthori. However on 15th January 2655 the two claimant houses of the Luthorian throne, the Luthori-based House of Orange-Villayn and the Hulstrian-based House of Rothingren-Traugott, merged with the crowning of Emperor Henry I of Alduria, Hulstria, Luthori and Trigunia. It was decided with the birth of his twin sons that the family would split into two branches with one taking the Luthorian and Aldurian thrones and the other taking the Hulstrian and Trigunian thrones. From that the crown of the Imperial thrones of Luthori and Alduria were passed to Gustavus I from whom all current Emperors are descended. The offical name of the ruling Imperial dynasty is "The Imperial Dynasty of Rothingren-Traugott, Orange-Villayn Branch", but is often simply referred to as the "House of Orange-Villayn". Currently The House of Steuart-Carmichael rules in Luthori.
The Privy CouncilEdit
His Majesty's Noble Council was originally an obscure group of advisers who held no significant power. However, during the era of Imperial supremacy the Noble Council grew to become an immensely powerful organ of government with authority and power that largely surpasses that of the cabinet. The Noble Council is made up of 16 Great Officers of the Crown, including 5 Viceroys and any additional Privy Councillors the Sovereign may wish to appoint.
The legislative body of the Holy Luthori Empire is the Imperial Diet, also known as the Diet or "Parliament". It consists of 455 members who are elected from the Duchies of the Luthori homeland in the Empire. The Members of the Diet (MDs) are elected every 4 years unless an early election is called, and may serve for an unlimited number of terms. One member, the Speaker, is politically neutral and does not vote. In addition, his or her seat is not challenged in elections. The Emperor's interests have traditionally been represented in the Diet, as most of the political parties in Luthori were staunchly royalist. Historically, the role of officially representing the Emperor's interests had been held over the course of history by the Bible and Crown Defenders, the Covenants, the Imperial Court and the Constitutionalist Imperial League. However in modern Luthori, the rise of anti-monarchist parties occurred with parties such as Choice, its successor party New Choice, the Social Democratic League, the Luthori People's Union and the Progress Party being among the most notable republican parties. At one time the head of government Joe Purefoy even proposed the abolition of the monarchy in parliament. However these efforts remained futile until the early 3970s when for the first time in modern Luthorian history a super majority of MDs were republicans.
The second largest party is referred to as His Majesty's Official Opposition, while other parties not in the government are collectively referred to as tertiary opposition parties. These parties play a sometimes crucial role in the Diet as well, with some bills of theirs sometimes passing against the ruling largest party's wishes.
The Diet is headed by the Imperial Chancellor. He or she is responsible for overseeing the affairs of the Diet, along with supervising the local assemblies in the Empire's colonies. The Chancellor is the Empire's head bureaucrat, administrator and head of government. The Chancellor is appointed by the Diet and traditionally with the blessing of the Emperor, although in later years this had been bypassed, especially when left-wing and anti-royalist Imperial Chancellors were appointed.
Due to the vast expanse of the colonial empire, the Diet has decreed that the colonies shall have their own elected assemblies which will pass their own local laws but the laws that cover the entire Empire shall be made by the Holy Imperial Diet. However, the colonies enjoy vast amounts of autonomy and mostly rule themselves in order to prevent any repeats of past colonies that have tried to break away from the Empire.
Imperial Judicial SystemEditThe Constitution of the Holy Luthori Empire states:
"The judicial authority shall be vested in a system of courts, both lower and constitutional. These courts shall have absolute power to ensure enforcement of the laws and constitution of the Holy Luthori Empire."
The Holy Luthori Empire's judicial system is split into two categories on top of the lower and constitutional courts described by the Constitution of the Empire. These are the Civil Courts and Criminal Courts. Luthori's judicial system is an adversarial system, with lawyers arguing the case in the courtroom.
The court system is broken down into local courts, regional courts, national courts, with the Imperial Supreme Court being the highest authority in the Empire when it comes to the law.
The Colonies of the Empire follow the same judicial system but with one more type of court before the Central Court known as the High Colonial Court. The High Colonial Court acts as the local Supreme Court, however, cases can be brought to the Imperial Supreme court if it will accept the case.
The Imperial Supreme Court is headed by the Minister of Justice, who leads a panel of 8 others judges (meaning a total of 9) in the court. The Minister of Justice is declared by the cabinet of the Empire, with the other Judges being appointed by the parties of the Diet proportionally to the number of seats they have.
Politics and ElectionsEdit
Luthori was traditionally a strongly conservative and devoutly religious society with a strong disapproval of socialism and republicanism. However since the 3800s, socialism and republicanism was on the rise with political parties such as Choice and the Social Democratic League endorsing both. However overall conservative and liberal policies mostly dominate the political theatre. In the late 3960s and early 3970s, the republican movement caught momentum, with for the first time the majority of Luthorians being against the monarchy mostly due to changing social attitudes and the viewed lack of relevance for a monarchy in the modern day and age. Socialism was also enjoying a strong resurgence with almost half the Imperial Diet being from socialist or social-democratic parties. The following list is of all active major political parties in Luthori.
|..||Luthori Workers' Committee||Socialism||209|
|..||White Rose (IA) - R||Conservatism||160|
|..||White Rose (IA) - M||Moderate-conservatism||131|
|..||New Conservative Party||Conservatism||89|
Main article: Luthori Nobility
Luthori's status as an aristocratic monarchy means that society is divided between aristocrats or nobles, businessmen and academics, clergymen or commoners. Except for the Emperor, who is above class distinctions, every Luthorian subject is a member of one of those classes. However, a large majority of Luthorians are commoners and all subjects are entitled to elect the members of the Diet and to the rights enumerated in the Luthorian Common Bill of Rights. Because of the meritocratic nature of the nobility, social mobility remains reasonably high and economic mobility is also quite high. Furthermore, securing a "classical education", something absolutely necessary to be accepted by the upper classes, is, with some hard work, achievable. Despite the relative ease of social mobility, Luthori is an extremely stratified society and although well-off, educated commoners, who are all but waiting for a title may be seen mingling with nobles, social classes rarely mix.
The legal privileges of the nobility remain very real but have been curbed in recent years. Aristocrats are tried by fellow nobles and no commoner may have any say in the verdict. Only nobles may sit in the Privy Council, the Empire's most important executive body. Since the Emperor largely depends on the high Nobility for absolute support, he must be careful not to upset the Landed Classes, therefore he must choose wisely his appointments to nobility. Nobles also have the archaic exclusive right to carry a sword and legally kill another aristocrat in a duel, though this is highly controversial. Also, only nobles are allowed to ask for audiences with members of the royal family. Finally, aristocrats are entitled to additional legal protections in the realm of defamation and libel. It is also very important to note that all privileges aside, aristocrats are incredibly powerful in Luthorian society. The Empire's top soldiers and royalist politicians, aristocrats, and peers wield immense power because a large majority of Luthori's corporations are owned and operated by nobles, with the Landed Classes being mostly factory owners and the Merchant Nobility being involved in shipping and financial business. However, in recent years members of the lower classes have become more likely to establish their own small businesses and are more often being appointed to more respectful positions such as university lecturers rather than simply being teachers, for example.
The Ministry of Defence, is the organ of government in charge of both security and defence in the Holy Luthori Empire. However, in practice, the Ministry of Defence is divided into two completely autonomous and independent branches over which it has no control whatsoever. The Luthorian Armed Forces is the first and largest branch. The heads of both branches are appointed directly by the Emperor without influence. Funding is distributed by the Ministry of Finance, or Imperial Treasury. In practice, the Ministry of Defence has almost no responsibilities and duties other than procurement despite officially being the best funded department in the government.
The Luthorian Armed ForcesEdit
The Luthori Armed Forces, is one of two organisations within the Ministry of Defence which is tasked with the defence of the realm, the sovereign and his interests, and protection from foreign elements. The Holy Luthori Empire is known for having one of the largest defence budgets and well-equipped military forces in the world. The country is also one of the biggest arms exporters in the world.
The Luthori Empire practices a free market economy, with very little government intervention. Inflation is very low due to the gold standard the Luthorian Pound is tied to and the economy generally grows at a fast rate with little to no recent slowdowns. Unemployment is almost consistently around 8%, taking an average of the unemployment rate of each Duchy.
Unlike most free market economies, the Luthorian economy is dominated by very large companies, which employ some 70% to 80% of the workforce, while small businesses employ some 15% of the workforce while the government accounts for just 5% to 7%. Despite often being governed by long established aristocrats, economic mobility is extremely high in the average Luthorian firm and it is easy to climb the corporate ladder. Almost every major company is a member of one of two trade blocks, the East Luthori Trade Syndicate (ELTS) and the Bane Consortium, which are large economic and business alliances in their own right. A large majority of Luthorian big business is made up of corporations, which are publicly traded on the Fort William Mercantile Exchange (FWME) or the Sandulka Stock Exchange (SSE), the nation's largest stock markets.
The Luthori Employer's Association (LEA) Editdefends free market economics and Luthorian entrepreneurship throughout the empire. The Central Bureau is located in Adlerberg and has connections all over the empire and is often described by malevolent tongues as "world capitalism's spider in the web". It is an economical hub for the Luthorian Empire. The LEA is also responsible for representing employers in labour disputes and is also a coordinator concerning colonial trade and exploitation.
Because of its free market economy and consequential low corporation tax as well as very lax regulations and excellent infrastructure, Luthori remains an extremely attractive site for the construction and maintaining of factories. Furthermore, most major Luthorian cities have factory districts where workers create a wide-range of consumer and industrial goods. Despite the significant presence of manufacturing industries the financial services industry is alive and well in Luthori, with cities, particularly in Geharon, serving as hubs for banking, investment and insurance companies.
The defence sector is also notable for the astronomical amount of money Luthori spends on defence. Defence contractors compete to create the best and most technologically advanced products in order to catch the eyes of Imperial procurement officers whose jobs are on the line if they do not choose the best product for the military. Since demand is always high, the defence industry has become one of Luthori's largest sectors and is also responsible for exporting military equipment to Luthori's colonies and allies.
However, the sector where the most money is made in Luthori is the energy sector. Hexlon Imperial, by far Luthori's largest corporation, started out as an energy company. Thanks to abundant petroleum, natural gas and uranium reserves in the colonies, Hexlon and others have managed to make huge profits from selling energy at very low prices but to a huge pool of customers.
The Ministry of Education and Culture oversees education policy and funding in the Holy Luthori Empire though during many points in the country's history education has been left almost entirely to the private sector.
The education system is divided into 'early years' for children aged 3-4, primary education for children 4-11, secondary education for children and adults aged 11-18. All of these stages are compulsory. Tertiary education is voluntary and is for adults aged 18-20, while those who wish to study at university are aged 20 or older.
Luthori's education system is extremely academic and priorities subjects such as Luthorian, Maths, the Sciences, History, Geography, and Modern Languages. Sport is also an important aspect of the education system with students in tertiary and university education encouraged to participate in at least one sport alongside studying their chosen subject. Subjects in the arts are underfunded by most schools, though some high quality arts schools do exist and are important contributors to Luthori's cultural output.
Universities in Luthori are created by Royal Charter, by an Act of Parliament, or upon request by the Privy Council. Only those bodies can award degrees. Undergraduate applications are managed by the Higher Education Admissions Service (HEAS).
Luthori is home to some of the best and oldest universities in the world. Five universities are classed as 'Ancient universities' and were created before 1800. Ten more were created between 1800-1900, known as 'Brick universities'. From then on universities have continued to be established and Luthori is home to one-hundred universities. However, the Ministry of Education and Culture has hinted that the number of universities may be capped at one-hundred.
Notable universities include the five 'Ancient universities'; the University of Fort William, the University of Northminster, the University of Youk, the Clamfwydd Martyn Luthor University, and the Imperial University New Salem. Other internationally renowned universities in Luthori include the Emperor's University Middenhall, the Royal Williamsbrough Academy, the Helston School of Science, the University of Laloquon, and the Adlerberg University.
Censuses in the Holy Luthori Empire are not regularly recorded due to the vast size of the country's Empire. However, censuses of the Luthori Homeland are occasionally held.
The official language of the Holy Luthori Empire is Luthorian, an Artanian language belonging to the Superseleyan and Northern Rhaetan language families. It is believed to be closely related to the Dundorfian, Hulstrian, and Dorvish languages. Luthorian is the most dominant language in the world and was spread during Luthori's conquest of the globe. The language is easy to learn and is used by most countries as a diplomatic and second language language.
99% of the population can speak Luthorian, while a large proportion of around 15% can also speak Canrillaise due to Luthori's relationship with Alduria. Hulstrian and Kunikata is spoken by 2% of the population. Beiteynuse is spoken by 1% of the population while Hobrazian is spoken by 1% of the population.
Luthori has a very homogeneous population with around 90% of its inhabitants being of Luthorian ethnicity, a white Artanian ethnic group. This includes ethnic Luthorians from the Luthori Homeland and some ethnic Luthorians born in the colonies who then moved back to Luthori proper. However, 5% originate from the colonies but are often described as Luthorian. 2% of the population originate from Hulstria and are Hulstrians or Gao-Showans. 1% of the population are Hobrazians, mainly refugees wanting to escape Communism. 1% of the population originates from Alduria, a country with strong connections with Luthori. Another 1% comes from Beiteynu, another country with connections with Luthori.
Luthor is a highly religious society and being an atheist or agnostic is considered to be socially taboo, though it has been rumoured that up to 10% of the population do not worship any religion. Luthorians are among the most Church-going people in the world and a large majority of the population goes to Church at least every Sunday. The Holy Luthori Empire is also named after the 16th Century Independent Hosian Reformer Dr. Martyn Luthor.
The Holy Luthori Church was establish in Luthori in 2132. The government under the Democratic Unionist Party created the Holy Luthori Church as the official state religion. It is organised into two parts, from top to bottom: the High Luthori Church is Bishopal in nature, while the Low Luthori Church is theologically more Ameliorate and Patriarchal.
The Traditionalist Lutheran Church was founded by Elberhard der Stolze in Northminster and broke away from the Lutheran Church of Malivia. Although the leadership of the church moved to Hutori after the creation of the Luthori Church, it still maintains a large presence in the Holy Luthori Empire, as well as the former colonies of Gishoto and Kazulia.
The Patriarchal religion was imported from Al'Badara around the year 800 and quickly spread across the coastal parts of the country. Luthori Patriarchalism broke from Deltarian Catholicism in the Minor Schism of 2144, under Innocent I. The Luthori Patriarchal Church had relatively good relations with the Queranzariah worshippers worldwide as compared to other Patriarchal churches. In 2440, the Third Randamarian Council voted for full communion with Aloria, becoming part of the Selucian Patriarchal Church. The 4 million who schismed over this proceeded to rapidly splinter into ever smaller groups; the largest of these at present is thought to be the "One Truth Church", with a flock of around fifty members.
95% of the population are members of the Holy Luthori Church. A small minority of 3% belong to the Traditionalist Lutheran Church, while 1% of the population worship the Hobrazian Orthodox Church and 1% of the population are believers in Yeudism.
Significant Religious Buildings and SitesEdit
Luthori is home to a number of iconic religious buildings and sites due to its devoutly religious populations. Worshippers flock from around the word to worship in its churches and cathedrals.
Cathedral of St. RichardEdit
Commissioned by Emperor Philip I, the cathedral became the main centre of all religious authority in the Empire. The cathedral was designed by Alduria-born, Luthori-raised, architect Samuel Francis. Many scenes from the Emperor Richard's great crusade, and of the golden age of Empress Mary I and Emperor Philippe II, decorate the cathedral's interior. It was finished just 3 years before the death of Emperor Philip I and has been the location of the crowning of the Emperors ever since. All Imperial religious ceremonies also take place in the Cathedral of St. Richard.
For centuries the official sport of Luthori has been fencing. However, during the War of Luthori Succession and at other brief intervals, the official sport was changed to football but it was always returned back to the more traditional fencing.
Luthorians are an active population with the majority of able and disabled people actively participating in at least one sport. Reflecting its status as the national sport fencing is also the most popular sport. Football is a close second, while cricket and tennis are also widely played.
Fencing is the national sport of Luthori and has been practices since the 18th century, originally as a means of practising for duels. The sport was gradually modernised witnessing the introduction of sideline judges and electronic scoring. It has been claimed that up to 90% of schoolboys participate in fencing but the sport is even popular among women too.
In some points of Luthori's history football has briefly been the national sport, however, it is predominantly a sport exclusively played by the working-class. Luthori's football league system consists of three divisions, the First Division being the highest tier, the Second Division being the middle tier, and the Third Division being the lowest tier.
Luthori is also home to Northminster United, widely accepted to be the most supported team in the world in terms of fans and TV viewership. Other prominent teams include Williamsbrough Royals, Middenhall City, Radstock Athletic, and Louth Loyalists.
The Luthorian national football team is also one of the most well-supported national teams in the world. The team's home stadium is the 85,000 all-seated Orange Stadium. The team is also notable for its passionate away supporters who follow the team around the globe. Another notable aspect of the national football team is it's highly recognisable home kit of white and red, and its bright orange away kit.
Cricket is more popular among the middle and upper-classes and in more rural areas of Luthori, though is extremely popular in Luthori's colonies. Luthori has a single cricket league called the Luthorian Victory Shield which consists of just five teams which represent the Duchies; Geharon, Orange, Tinako, Utagia, and Yodukan. Cricket is played more often on the village level during the spring, summer, and autumn, while the Luthorian national cricket team tours its colonies during the autumn and winter.
Like fencing, tennis is a sport that is played by all the classes. However, unlike fencing tennis is played more by women than by men. Luthori has produced more successful female tennis players than male tennis players.
Luthori's capital, Fort William, also hosts the most prestigious tennis tournament in the world known as The Championships. The Emperor sometimes attends the final of the The Championships and will often present the trophy to the winner of the tournament.
|History|| Christopher Dove - Monarchs of Luthori
|Nations of Artania|