The title has been used by all the elected Head of the State of the republican periods of the istalian history.
However the powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the head of the Government, the President del Consiglio dei Ministri, and cabinets has over time differed with the various Istalian constitutions.
The President of the Republic is directly elected by universal suffrage conducted via run-off voting which ensures that the elected President always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off.
According to the last adopted Consitution, the Istalian Republic is a semi-presidential system so the President is quite powerful.
He represents the Nation, guarantees its independence, the respect of the International Treaties and is the supreme guarantor of the Constitution.
It is the holder of the Executive Power although there is the a Prime Minister, which for most part of the republic periods of Istalia has been known as Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri, and Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs.
The Istalian President wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy,it is infact the Supreme Commander of the Istalian armed forces, and holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians.
The president's greatest power is his/her ability to choose the prime minister, in fact it is his the responsability to propose the Government Cabinet (Consiglio dei Ministri della Republica) and can also dismiss it, the Prime Minister or individual ministers. However, since the French National Assembly shall give its confiance to the Cabinet and has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government through a vote of no confiance, the president is forced to name a prime minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly.
In this case, two scenarios are possible, given the traditional opposition of two coalition which for most part of the time of the semi-presidential system charaterized the istalian politics.
- When the majority of the Chamber has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the president's power is diminished, acting almost as a cerimonial head of the state, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive prime minister and National Assembly, and is not directly attributed to the post of president.
- When the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can fully exploit its active role and directs in effect the government policy. The prime minister is then the personal choice of the President, and can be easily replaced if the administration becomes unpopular through a government reshuffle.
The mandate of the president and of the Parliament are both 4 years and the two elections came together. Among the powers of the President:
- He may dissolve the Parliament, after the approval of the Government and of the President of the Chamber, but only when an election did not express a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and has been found impossible to form one which can ensure the confidence to a Government.
- He directs the Nation's Foreign Policy in cooperation with the Government, is the Head of Diplomacy and receives Foreign Ambassadors.
- He promulgates the Laws approved by the Parliament.
- He has the right of veto: he can ask the Constitutional Council a further check on the constitutionality of a law before its promulgation, only once.
- He index referendum proposed by the Government or by a motion from the Camera dei Deputati.
- He has initiative on the revision of the Constitution on the proposal of Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri.
- He may assumed full powers and may legislate by decree in case of national emergency, in this exceptional situation, however, the Parliament is automatically convoked and may not be dissolved under any circumstances.
- He may send messages to the Camera dei Deputati.
- He may grant pardons, not amnesty.
All decisions of the president must be countersigned by the prime minister.
The President may be impeached by the Camera dei Deputati in two ways: on the basis of the charges of high treason or violation of the Constitution and the vote of impeachment requires 2/3rds of the Camera dei Deputati vote in favor. In this case it is not necessary call early election
Impeachment through a vote in favor for an early elections by absolute majority of the Chamber, in this case the term of the President indeed ends together the Parliament.
In the case the President of the Republic cannot persue his duties, the President of the Senate acts as deputy Head of State (Istalian: Presidente supplente della Repubblica, Luthorian: deputy President of the Republic). The deputy Head of State shall act exclusively persuing the cerimonial duties of the President, and furthermore he cannot dissolve the Parliament, appoint a new President of the Council and propose his Government, propose a referendum, propose laws, direct the foreign policy. The executive power shall belong to the Head of Government.
In case of permanent impediment, the President of the Chamber of Deputies shall call early elections while the deputy President of the Republic shall sign the decree to dissolve the Parliament. In case of less than 6 months to the next elections, the deputy President of the Republic shall remain in office until the natural end of the term.
The official residence and office of the President of the Republic is the Quattroregni Palace (istalian: Palazzo Quattroregni), located in the historic center of Romula.
The Presidency is provided also of two another presidential residence: the estate of Castello dei Borromesi, in the municipality of Rocca Bassa in Sarregna, and the Palazzina di Caccia dei Laghi di Terracche, on the shores of the Great Lake, in Trivendito.
Since 4118, the Republic established a National Mausoleum where bury those Presidents of the Republic who distinguished themself during their office. It is placed in the National Memorial Mausoleum of Alessandro Senna, designed to honor Alessandro Senna but modified during the construction to become also a monument to honor and remember the most valid and notable Head of State of Istalia.
List of Presidents of the Istalian RepublicEdit