President of the Istalian Republic
Presidente della Repubblica Istaliana
Seal of the Presidency of the Republic
II April 4410
I April 4406
President (reference and spoken)
His Excellency (diplomatic, outside Istalia)
4 years, unless early election called
President of the Senate
The title has been used by all the elected Head of the State of the republican periods of the istalian history.
However the powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Government, formed by the President of the Council of Ministers and the Council of Ministers, has over time differed with the various Istalian constitutions.
The President of the Republic is directly elected by universal suffrage conducted via run-off voting which ensures that the elected President always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off.
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He represents the Nation, guarantees its independence, the respect of the International Treaties and is the supreme guarantor of the Constitution.
It is the holder of the Executive Power, although there is a Prime Minister, traditionally called President of the Council of Ministers (Istalian:Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), and Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs.
The Istalian President wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of the national security and foreign policy. The president holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians.
The president's greatest power is his/her ability to choose the prime minister, in fact it is his the responsability to propose the Government's Cabinet (Council of Ministers) and can also dismiss it, the Prime Minister or individual ministers. However, since the national legislature shall give its confiance to the Cabinet and has the power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government through a vote of no confiance, the president is forced to name a prime minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly.
In this case, two scenarios are possible, given the traditional opposition of two coalition which for most part of the time of the semi-presidential system charaterized the istalian politics.
- When the majority of the Chamber has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the president's power is diminished, acting almost as a cerimonial head of the state, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive prime minister and National Assembly, and is not directly attributed to the post of president.
- When the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can fully exploit its active role and directs in effect the government policy. The prime minister is then the personal choice of the President, and can be easily replaced if the administration becomes unpopular through a government reshuffle.
The mandate of the president and of the Parliament are both 4 years and the two elections came together. Among the powers of the government:
- The President promulgates laws.
- The president has the right of veto: he can ask the Constitutional Council a further check on the constitutionality of a law before its promulgation, only once.
- The president may also refer the law for review to the Constitutional Council prior to promulgation.
- The President may dissolve the Parliament, after the approval of the Government and of the President of the Chamber, but only when an election did not express a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and has been found impossible to form one which can ensure the confidence to a Government.
- The president may refer treaties or certain types of laws to popular referendum, within certain conditions, among them the agreement of the Prime minister or the parliament.
- The president is the Commander-in-Chief of the Istalian Armed Forces.
- The president may order the use of nuclear weapons.
- The president names the Prime Minister. The president names and dismisses the other ministers, with the agreement of the Prime minister.
- The president names most officials (with the assent of the cabinet).
- The president presides over the Council of Ministers.
- The president names certain members of the Constitutional Council.
- The president directs the Nation's Foreign Policy in cooperation with the Government and is the Head of Diplomacy and receives Foreign Ambassadors.
- The president holds referendum proposed by the Government or by a motion from the Chamber of Deputies.
- The president has initiative on the revision of the Constitution on the proposal of the President of the Council of Minister.
- The president may assumed full powers and may legislate by decree in case of national emergency, in this exceptional situation, however, the Parliament is automatically convoked and may not be dissolved under any circumstances.
- The president may send messages to the Camera dei Deputati.
- The president may grant pardons, not amnesty.
All decisions of the president must be countersigned by the prime minister.
The President may be impeached by the Camera dei Deputati in two ways: on the basis of the charges of high treason or violation of the Constitution and the vote of impeachment requires 2/3rds of the Camera dei Deputati vote in favor. In this case it is not necessary call early election
Impeachment through a vote in favor for an early elections by absolute majority of the Chamber, in this case the term of the President indeed ends together the Parliament.
In the case the President of the Republic cannot persue his duties, the President of the Senate acts as deputy Head of State (Istalian: Presidente supplente della Repubblica, Luthorian: deputy President of the Republic). The deputy Head of State shall act exclusively persuing the cerimonial duties of the President, and furthermore he cannot dissolve the Parliament, appoint a new President of the Council and propose his Government, propose a referendum, propose laws, direct the foreign policy. The executive power shall belong to the Head of Government.
In case of permanent impediment, the President of the Chamber of Deputies shall call early elections while the deputy President of the Republic shall sign the decree to dissolve the Parliament. In case of less than 6 months to the next elections, the deputy President of the Republic shall remain in office until the natural end of the term.
The official residence and office of the President of the Republic is Quattroregni Palace (istalian: Palazzo Quattroregni), located in the historic center of Romula.
The Presidency is provided also of two another Presidential Residence: Borromesi's Castle (Italian: Castello dei Borromesi), in the municipality of Rocca Bassa in Sarregna, and The Hunting Residence of Terracche Lakes (Istalian: Palazzina di Caccia dei Laghi di Terracche), on the shores of the Firmamento Lake, in Trivendito.
The Seal of the President, like the ones of the President of the Council and of the Parliament, consists of a blue oval whose main axis is horizontal and in which are shown, in order from the top to bottom: a stylized image of the building which houses the institution, the official name of the institution and finally the Emblem of the Republic; in this case there is the image of the facade of Quattroregni Palace under which there is the inscription "President of the Republic".
Since 4118, the Republic established a National Mausoleum where bury those Presidents of the Republic who distinguished themself during their office. It is placed in the National Memorial Mausoleum of Alessandro Senna, designed to honor Alessandro Senna but modified during the construction to become also a monument to honor and remember the most valid and notable Head of State of Istalia.
List of Presidents of the Istalian RepublicEdit