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Zuman
Zuman
Spoken in
Region
Total speakers
Language family
Writing system
Official language in

The Zuman Langauge is a language of the Zuma people of Valruzia, spoken primarily in Tirkalara state, and also in Bandorra.


Alphabet Edit

The Zumans have traditionally used a syllabic writing system. For the purposes of exposition all words are transcribed into the Latin Alphabet.

Phonology Edit

Plosives Edit

  • B /p/ unvoiced bilabial plosive as in Parrot
  • T /t, d/ unvoiced alveolar plosive as in Toucan; the grapheme <d> is only used by speakers of the Valruzian Language, while the [d] phone is actually an allophone of [t]
  • K /k/ unvoiced velar plosive as in Kestrel
  • Q /q/ unvoiced uvular plosive

Nasals Edit

  • M /m/ nasal bilabial as in Merlin
  • N /n/ nasal alveolar as in Nuthhatch

Fricatives Edit

  • V /v/ voiced labio-dental fricative as in Vengeance
  • Z /z/ voiced alveolar fricative as in Zebra
  • S /z`/ voiced retroflex fricative
  • X /X/ voiced velar fricative
  • H /h/ unvoiced glottal fricative as in Hawk
  • Th /th/ unvoiced dental fricative as in thing
  • Dh /dh/ voiced dental fricative as in through or Icelandic ð
  • Sc /sc/ voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant as in she

Liquids Edit

  • L /l/ alveolar lateral approximant as in Light
  • R /r/ coronal trill as in spanish "perro"
  • W /v/ labiodental approximant

Vowels Edit

  • A /A/ open back unrounded
  • E /E/ open mid-front unrounded
  • I /I/ near-close near-front unrounded
  • O /o/ close back rounded
  • U /}/ close central rounded
  • Y /y/ close front rounded
  • Ø /ø/ open-mid front rounded vowel as in French jeune

Length Edit

The length of vowels is shown by an accent (´), the length of consonants by gemination. The Phonem Ø is always long, except before long consonants or other vowels. Stressed vowels are always long except before long consonants. In words with only one syllable they are long or short, depending on whether the word is stressed in the sentence or not.

Stress Edit

  • Words with more than three syllables are always stressed on the second last one.
  • Words with three syllables are stressed on the second last one if the last one's vowel is long or stands befor two or more consonants; if not, they are stressed on the third last syllable.
  • Words with two syllables are stressed on the second last one.
  • Exceptions in stress are marked by a grave akzent (`)
  • Compounds are stressed like the modifier, but the head has secondary stress.

Syllable Structure Edit

Verbs Edit

Tense Edit

Aspect Edit

Voice Edit

Infinitives Edit

Inflection Edit

Pronouns Edit

Declension Edit

The Zuman Language is an Ergative-Absolutive-Language. Its cases are:

  • Ergative: The subject of a transitive verb
  • Absolutive: The subject of an intransitive verb or the direct object of a transitive verb
  • Dative: The indirect object of a verb
  • Genitive: The case of possession or relation
  • Benefactive: The case used for anything something's done for
  • Vocative: The case used to address somebody
  • Memoriative: The case used for anything something remembers or forgets


Adjectives and Adverbs Edit

Syntax Edit

Word order Edit

Subordinate clauses Edit

Relative clauses Edit

Dictionary Edit

  • hin = middle
  • lara = valley
  • mow = flat
  • qan = land
  • son = slayer
  • súd = south
  • tirka = large
  • xod = north
  • zid = dry
  • zidor = desert

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